Newest Assignments and Dates (If assignment is online it shall be stated below)

  • 03-17-2008 - 03-21-2008 -Spring Break (FREEDOM)
  • 03-21-2008 -Art History Outline and images
  • Still during spring break: Read Lord of the Flies for techniques/devices, 3 allusions due.

Sunday, December 30, 2007

Economics –Unit 3 Test Corrections (Almost Done) -{Not Answered: 4,5,9,10,11,15,18,19,21,24,25}



Correct Answer/Why is it Correct?

Why Missed


Aggregate Supply

E= A schedule indicating the level of real output that will be produced at each possible price level

A-D are obviously incorrect as they deal with purchasing (D), expenditures (A), inflation and unemployment (C), and inputs (B). Supply indicates production

Not enough studying

Never understood

Stupid Mistake

Did not miss


Aggregate Demand Curve

C= Consumer wealth

Energy prices (A) would not effect demand. The prices of inputs (D) would not effect demand. Productivity rates (B) would not effect demand. How much it costs of how quickly a product is made is not going to change how much the product is demanded. What you are left with if either consumer wealth or prices. While a change in prices might effect the demand curve, consumer wealth is what will cause it to shift. The more money the consumer have the more they will purchase, increasing demand

Not enough studying

Never understood

Stupid Mistake

Did not miss


Short-Run Aggregate Supply Curve

C=Prices of inputs decrease

The graph set up with real output on the X axis and interest rates on the Y axis. When the prices of inputs decrease we will have in increase in output as we purchase more materials needed for our output, moving the curve to the right.

Not enough studying

Never understood

Stupid Mistake

Did not miss


Aggregate Demand Curve vs. Aggregate Supply Curve

C= Employment increase & Price level has no change

Not enough studying

Never understood

Stupid Mistake

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Capital Stock

D=Long-run aggregate supply curve to shift rightward

Not enough studying

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Stupid Mistake

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Inflationary gap

B=Increase in money supply

Inflationary gaps can be depleted with the usage of contractionary fiscal policy or minimizing the money supply.

Not enough studying

Never understood

Stupid Mistake

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Effect on GDP and Price Level

B= Real GDP increase & Price Level Decrease

With an increase in labor GDP would increase since you would now not only be producing more but there would be more individuals with a source on income and that income would then be used for purchases. Price level would decrease because you are now producing more and therefore have an excess supply of the product, so price levels would drop.

Not enough studying

Never understood

Stupid Mistake

Did not miss


Marginal Propensity

A=Consume is 0.8

The problem gives you the information to find the marginal propensity to consume. The equation is:

MPC=Change in consumption/change in income



Not enough studying

Never understood

Stupid Mistake

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Keynesian Aggregate-Expenditure Model

D= $24 billion

Not enough studying

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Stupid Mistake

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Keynesian Aggregate-Expenditure Model

B=The change in real GDP by the initial change in spending

Not enough studying

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Stupid Mistake

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Change in Consumption Schedule

D= An expectation of future shortages of essential consumer goods

Not enough studying

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Investment Demand Curve

C=Businesses becoming more optimistic with respect to future business conditions

The investment demand curve lies on a graph with the Y axis being represented by the rate of return and interest while the X axis is represented by investment. The curve would move to the right along the X axis as investment increases. Investment would increase as a result of 'businesses becoming more optimistic'

Not enough studying

Never understood

Stupid Mistake

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Automatic Stabilizers

D=I & II only

Congressional action is not included in the list of automatic stabilizers because it requires the action of the government and takes time for any actions discussed by congress to be approved and put to work in the economy. Income tax and unemployment compensation are built into our economy to keep the money supply under control.

Not enough studying

Never understood

Stupid Mistake

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Automatic Stabilizers

B= Decrease & Increase

Automatic stabilizers really work for the economy during extreme periods such as during recessions and inflationary times. During a recession we need taxes to decrease so not as much money is being taken out of circulation. During inflationary periods we need taxes to increase to get some of the dollars out of the hands of consumer. Depleting the money supply will bring the economy back to equilibrium

Not enough studying

Never understood

Stupid Mistake

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Long & Short Run Graph

C= An increase in wages

Not enough studying

Never understood

Stupid Mistake

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Short-Run Aggregate Supply

B=Decrease in price level & decrease in unemployment

When you have an increase in supply price will drop as there is now excess of a product that needs to be get rid off. Unemployment will also decrease because an increase in supply means that there are more employees are needed to create this increase of produce

Not enough studying

Never understood

Stupid Mistake

Did not miss


Aggregate Supply Curve

A=Increase in price level & increase in real GDP

Real GDP would increase because of the excess governmental spending. Price level would decrease because _______

Not enough studying

Never understood

Stupid Mistake

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Total Income

E= II & III only

Not enough studying

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Stupid Mistake

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Full-Employment GDP

C= $50 billion

Not enough studying

Never understood

Stupid Mistake

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Crowding Out

C=Higher interest rates decrease private sector investment

Crowding out is defined as a rise in interest rates and a resulting decrease in planned investment caused by the Federal government's increased borrowing in the money market

Not enough studying

Never understood

Stupid Mistake

Did not miss


Fiscal Policy

B=$25 billion decrease in government & $25 billion increase in taxes spending

Not enough studying

Never understood

Stupid Mistake

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Fiscal Policy

D= I & III only

During an inflation we want to implement contractionary fiscal policy. Therefore, we want to reduce government spending to help decrease the money supply and to increase income taxes, once again, to get some of the money out of the hands of the consumers

Not enough studying

Never understood

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Classical Economics

A=A market economy is self-correcting and thus will not remain in a recession indefinitely

Classical, unlike Keynesian, supports a self correcting economy and a government that gives gentle nudges here and there, but over all leaves the economy to straighten itself. Classical economists believe that the economy is self-correcting and won't stay, permanently in a recession and inflation.

Not enough studying

Never understood

Stupid Mistake

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Short & Long-Run Supply and Production Possibilities Curves

C=Decrease in S-R Supply, Decrease in L-R Supply, and inward shift in Production Possibilities Curve

Not enough studying

Never understood

Stupid Mistake

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Personal Income Taxes

B= II only

Not enough studying

Never understood

Stupid Mistake

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Phillips Curve

D=Low unemployment rates

When the actual rate of inflation is higher than expected, profits temporarily rise and the unemployment rate temporarily falls

Not enough studying

Never understood

Stupid Mistake

Did not miss


Personal Income Taxes

D=A Decrease in consumption of $67 and an increase in savings of $33

We currently consume two-thirds of what we have available. With the new income tax we have $100 less available for consumption or savings. Therefore there is a decrease in consumption by $67, which is two-thirds of the $100 lost, and a decrease in savings by $33, which is the remain third of the $100.

Not enough studying

Never understood

Stupid Mistake

Did not miss


Personal Income Taxes

A=Decrease in real GDP & decrease in Price level

With a rise in incomes taxes we have less money available to consume. Less to consume means a lower GDP. Also with less money available we will not only be consuming less, but also producing less which less lower the price level.

Not enough studying

Never understood

Stupid Mistake

Did not miss


Automatic Stabilizers in Fiscal Policy

D=Go into effect without passage of new legislation

Automatic stabilizers are a good thing to have built into the economy since they go into effect almost immediately without any new legislation needed. Should they require a new legislation being passed by congress it would require a great deal of time. The immediate reaction of the built-stabilizers is what gives them a major advantage.

Not enough studying

Never understood

Stupid Mistake

Did not miss


Marginal Propensity to Consume/GDP

D=It could increase by up to $9 billion

Equation for finding the marginal propensity to consume: MPC= Change in consumption/change in income.




Not enough studying

Never understood

Stupid Mistake

Did not miss

Tuesday, December 25, 2007

Physiology -Notes- Bone Growth

Bone Growth

  • Bones grow from the epiphyseal plate during infancy and youth
  • Facial bones continue to grow until your demise
  • Replacement of cartilage cells by bone cells only on the sides of the diaphysis
  • Controlled by sex & growth hormones
  • Bone growth is completed at 25 years in males and 19 years in females

~3 Different Zones~

1.) Growth Zone: cartilage undergoes mitosis, push up on epiphyseal plate

2.) Transformation Zone: older cells begin to break down (hypertrophy) and enlarge

-These cells begin to calcify

-Cartilage turned into bone

3.) Osteogenic Zone: formation of medullary cavity

~Growth is Dependent on 4 Factors~

1.) Adequate Minerals: Ca2+, B, Mn

2.) Hormones: thyroid, growth, sex, parathyroid, calcitonin

3.) Vitamins: A, B12, C, D

4.) Exercise: weight bearing stress

AP Calculus -Test- Chapter 3


Chapter 3 Test

1. Find the Derivative

A. 4x3 + 3x

B. 5


D. -1 .

E. 1 .

F. 2e5x

G. ln 3x - 7

H. 5x3 sin x

I. 26x

J. 4

6x + 1

K. cos x

L. tan x

M. (3x2 + x)5

Ösin 3x2

5x2 cos x

P. (3x2 + 4x)2

3x + 6

Q. log2 3x


2. Find y',y'', and y'''.

A) 5x7 + 3x6 – x5 + 2x4 + 3x2 – 12

B) cos 3x

3. Find the equation of the tangent line at P.

  1. y = 3x2 P = (1,3)

  1. y = 2x – 4 . P = (4,6)


4. Find where the slope of the tangent line to y = x3 - 3x2 is 0.

5. A spherical balloon's radius is increasing as it is inflated. Find how fast its volume is increasing with respect to the radius at r = 10 cm.

6. An athlete's position on a field is determined by the equation 100 + 25t – 5t2. Find when his velocity is 0.

7. You are the director of an action movie. In one scene, a stunt man is launched from a catapult such that his height above ground at any time is given by -16t2 + 48t + 64. You will need to set up the cameras to catch appropriate moments in his flight. Find…

  1. When he gets to highest point and how high he is.

  1. When he hit's the ground, and how fast he's going when he gets there.

  1. How high up he is when he's launched, and with what velocity he is launched.

Thursday, December 20, 2007

Chapter 8 study guide

What does the illuminated tugras of Sultan Suleyman represent and what was its political and symbolic meaning?
The illuminated tugra is from a document from an institution in Jerusalem made by Sultana Hurren. It symbolizes the authority of the Sultant and his officials. The were put on seals, coins and buildings.

To what degree is Islamic art non-representational?
They were for anioconic style, they weren't allowed to make images of important religious figures especially Muhammad

Discuss the design of the Dome of the Rock in terms of Byzantine architectural and artistic influences?
It is a central planned mosque, it trakes the octagon with in an octagon from Byzantine tradition. But the exterior is highly decorated inlike christian churchs, it has a Gold DOme on a drum with bright colored mosaics.

What are the distinctly Islamic features of the Dome of the Rock?
It has intricate design made by individualy cutting the peices, and a calligraphic frieze topped by symmetrical vine scrolls and trees

What aspects of carved stone frieze on the exterioe of the Umayad palace of Mshatta are characteristics of Islamic art?
It has a zigzag molding that splits into triangles each containing rosettes in high relief. It has scrolls with animals and birds, it uses the arabesque style common in Islamic art

What aspects of the carved stone frieze on the exterier of the Umayyad of Mshatta relate to Persian and Byzantine motifs?
It has the intricate design and has a rosette that was common in bothe Persian and Byzantine motifs

What characteristics of the desigh of the Great Mosque of Cordoba are unique in mosque architectur ans would become influential in the development of late Islamic architecture?
They ussed the alternating pale and red Vousoirs. It has a double teired design that incresed the hieght of the interior space, with horseshoe arches

What are the stylistic characteristics of Samarkand ware?
WHite pottery with tufic-style letter was influences by Chinese porcalin which is imitated here

What are the distinctive characteristics of the Perisan four-iwan Mosque?
large, rectangular, vaulted hals with monumental arched opening, symbolizes the gateways between the outside and inside, the spiritual and material world.

From what building type did the 4-iwan mosque evolve and what particular need did the form accommodate?
It started from the madrasas that were schools for advanced study

Discuss the style and design of the mosaic mihrab from the Madrasa Inami, Isfahan in of how they represent Islamic artistice traditions?
Made but cutting each peice individually. THe color scheme uses white, turquise and cobalt blue with accents of yellow ans green was common in this type, patterns of organic and geometric forms

What are the distinctive characteristics of the Ottoman cantral plan mosque design, as represented in the Selimye Cami at Edirne?
Domed, raised on a base, truely central planed, dominatd by the large domed uninteruppted space. It has 4 minerats, one on each corner.

What unusual feature is found on the 13th century pen box from Persia which is rarely in other examples of Islamic art?
It is signed by the author

Discuss the design of the Banner of Las Navas de Tolosa in terms of its characteristics Islamic artistic features?
eight-pointed star int center with text surrounding it and intricate arabesque designs

Discuss how geometric, botanical and calligraphic motif anr combined in the design of thw Koran frontispience from 14th century Mamluk Egypt? What other examples of Islamic reveal similar combinations?
resembles court carpets, combines foliage and styleized flowers. has a 16 pointer starburst with calligraphic exteriors like in the Banner of Las Navas de Tolosa

Chapter 14 image

14-12 Palace of Charlamagne
Much of the palace has been replaced or restored. The chapel is octagonal that rises into a clerestory above the gallery level. Surrounding the the central core is an ambulatory aisle forming an outer with sixteen sides. The gallery opens into the central space with arched oprening of corinthian columns. The vault over the Palace chapel rises from the octagonal form in eight curving masonry segments. The vault used to contain a mosaic of the 24 elders of the Apocalypse.

14-15 Page with Mark the Evangelist.
Book of Mark, Godescalc Evangelistary. 781-83. Ink and colors on vellum. 12 1/2 x 8 1/2. Copied by the Frankish scribe Godescals. It lavishly illustrated, including gold and silver letters on purpled-dyed vellum. Each Gospel section has an illustration of the evangelist. The scribes didn't use punctuation marks or word spaces. Depicted is Mark in the act of writing at a tilted lecturn to display his writings. He is near a lion with a halo that Mark is associated with. There is an essence of body beneath his robe and three demensional. It has a classical spiral vine motifs.

14-16 Page with Matthew the Evangelist
Book of Matthew, Ebbo gospel c.816-35. Ink, gold, and colors on vellum, 10 1/4 x 8 3/4. Written by Archbishop Ebbo apointed by Louis the Pious. Uses the medieval expressionism. The landscape almost runs off the page but is cut off by the Golden border. The painted is created to portray his inner beauty with twisted eyebrows. On the corner of the page there is a Angel who is his symbol. There are gold highlights in his hair desk and bench.

14-9 Cross, from the Church if Saint Guilia
bresia, Italy. Late 7th - early 9th century. Gilded silver, wood, jewels, camoes, and gold-glass medallion, 50 x 39". Huge jeweled cross with bight colors and pretty gems. In Byzantine form with eaqual arms widening at the ends with a circle in the middle. A wooden core gilded with silver, christ ins in a mandorla in relief with more than 200 jewls, glass and cameos. Supposedly it was given to the Church of Saint Guilia by the last Langobard king

14-18 Crucifixtion with angels Angels and Mourning Figures
outer cover, Lindau Gospels, c. 870-80 Gold, pearls, and gems, 13 3/4 x 10 3/8". Maybe made at one of the workshops of Chsrles the Bald. It is now the covers of the Lindau gospels. Made in gold Repousee surrounded by a jeweled frame. THe Angels are above the arms of the cross, there are also figures of the moon and the sun with hiden faces. Jesus has wide eyes and straight with outstretched arms.

14-19 Memorial stone, Labro Saint Hammers Gotland
Sweden 8th century. In a mushroom shape. The figure has horizontal registers surrounded by a ribbon interlace. The elaborate patterns have symbolic significance. On one of the registers they have a ritual hanging of a victim to Odin in front of which is a burial mound called the hall of Odin. The symbol of Odin an eagle and a triple knott

Tuesday, December 18, 2007

Chapter 14 Vocabulary

Chapter 14 Vocabulary
33. Charlamagne: "Charles the Great" King of the Franks, then proclaimed himself King of the Langobardian people after killing his father in law. First Christian Emperor
34. Carolingian: Empire started by Charlamagne in the mid 8th century. Made the Carolingian dynasty in 768. They were the Franks who settled in Gual. Under the reign of the Charlamagne the empire was in France, Italy, Germany, Belgium, and Holland.
35. Pope Leo III: (795-816) crowned Charlamagne emporer after Constantine
36. Renovatio Romani imperii: " The revival of the Roman Empire" on Charlamagne's official seal
37. Westwork: A narthex where the church entry faced west (ex: Palace chapel of Charlamagne)
38. Cloister: arcaded courtyards linking the church and the building for the monastic community (ex: Abbey Church of Saint Riquier, Monastery of Centula)
39. Chancel: sanctuary (ex: Church of Saint Riquier)
40. Aachen: Capitol of the Carolingian empire.
41. Benidict of Nursia (St. Benedict): (c. 480-547) wrote Abbot Gozbertof the Benedictine Abbey of Saint Gali near Lake Constance

Wednesday, December 12, 2007

Chapter 8 Vocabulary

Chapter 8 Vocab.

Abbasid Dynasty: 750-1258 replaced the Umayyad dynasty
Aniconic: non figural
Arabesque: scrolling vines
Caliph: “successor” ruler of the Islamic kingdom,
Calligraphy: fancy Arabic writing used as and in art
Hadith: a composite book of what Muhammad did and said
Horseshoe arch: a round arch with an indentation in the middle
Imam: Prayer leader
Islam: Monotheistic religion created by Muhammad the Prophet
Iwan: large rectangular vaulted halls w/ monumental arched openings.
Kaaba: Islam’s holiest structure. One room cube shaped building, when Muslims pray they direct themselves towards the Kaaba. Thought to be built by Ishmael and Abraham over a foundation made by Adam
Khamsa of Nizami: Five poems written by Persian Mystic poet
Kilim: Flat woven carpet
Koran: “Recitation” Holy book of Islam
Kufic: Angular, earliest scripts for the city of Kufa
Madrasas: Schools for advanced study, like modern universities
Mecca: birthplace of Muhammad, place of the major pilgramage
Miniatures: individual small scaled paintings
Minbar: Pulpit
Mirador: Projecting rooms with windows on three sides
Mosque: Muslim place of worship
Muqarnas: Niche-like pointed arch
Naskhi: script used by educated Muslims
Nasrid: last Spanish Muslim Dynasty 1232-1492)
Ogival or Pointed Arch: an arch with a pointed tip and stones outlining
Thuluth:popilar Mamluk cursive scriptTugras: Imperial calligraphic design
Umayyad Dynasty: 661-750. Founded by Uthman. The Umayyads spread from India to Spain and Northern Africa
Warp and Weft: Warp is vertical portion of the wool carpets, wefts are the flat woven horizontal rows that hold the piece together.

Sunday, December 9, 2007

Chapter 8 images part 3

8-14 Qibla wall with minrab and minbar
Main iwar in a mosque, sultan Hasan madras-mausoleum-mosque. Cairo, Egypt. 1356-63. Shows Seljuk influence. Functioned as classrooms with the student housing in the surrounding rooms. Has marble panels and double-arches recessed minrab with thin columns holding up pointed arches. The inlays, marble, have red, white, and blue stripes, minbar made of carved stone instead of the usual wood,

8-15 Sinan. Selimiye Cami (Mosque of selim), Edirne
Turkey. 1570-74. Royal mosque, only royal mosque could have more then two minarets, they usually had more. The dome is more than 102 feet in diameter. The complex has a madrasa, and other educational buildings, a burial ground, a hospital, a covered market and baths, and charity kitchens, the shape of the mosque shifts from square to octagon to circle as it moves up. It is raised up.

8-17 Griffin
Islamic Mediterranean, probably from Fatimid Egypt. 11th century, Bronze, height 42 1/8”. Stylized. Maybe a fountain spout. They made many metal works in the shapes of birds. The piece is incised with feathers, scales, and silk trapping. On the thighs there and animals in medallions. The bands of the chest and back have tufic lettering along with scale and circle patterns.

8-19 bottle
Syria. Mid 14th century. Blown glass with enamel and gilding. 19 ½ x 9 ½”. has a large inscription naming and honoring the Rasulid sultan in thuluth, a mamluk cursive script, it also has the Rasulid insignia, a red rosette with five petals

8-20 Ewer
Kashan, Persia (Iran). Early 13th century. Glazed and painter fritware, height 11 13/16”. Double-walled. Panted and pierced on the outer shell with tangled vines surrounding seated human figures. Glazed with luster (a thin transparent glaze with a metallic sheen, applied over the colored glazes) and translucent turquoise.

8-21 Banner of Las Navas de Tolosa
Detail of center panel, from southern Spain. 1212-50. Silk Tapestry-weave with gilt parchment. 10’9 7/8” x 7’2 5/8”. It has an eight-pointed star in the center. It has calligraphic panels down the sides and across the top. The piece has eight lobes with gold crescents and white inscribed parchment medallions that form the lower edge of the banner.

Art History -Chap 8- Images Parts 1+2

8.3 Cut-Away Drawing of the Dome of the Rock

  • 687-91
  • Oldest surviving Islamic sanctuary
  • Stands on platform of the temple Mount and encloses a rock outcropping that is sacred to the Jews

    • Where Abraham prepared to sacrifice Isaac
  • Built by Syrian artisans in the Byzantine tradition
  • Central plan
  • Crowned with a golden dome. Decorated with tiles outside and marble veneer and mosaic inside
  • Frieze on inner wall contain inscriptions from the Koran with passages from other texts
  • Walls are covered with pale marble whose veining creates abstract symmetrical patterns and columns with shafts of gray patterned marble and gilded capitals
  • Mosaics thought to represent the gardens of Paradise

8-5 Frieze, Detail of Façade

  • The frieze of Mshatta extended in a band 16 feet high across the base
  • It was divided by a zigzag molding into triangular compartments

    • Each has contains a large rosette in high relief
  • Compartments were filled with intricate carvings in low relief that included interlacing scrolls inhabited by birds and other animals

8.6 Prayer Hall, Great Mosque

  • One of the earlier mosques
  • Hypostyle hall

    • Approached through an open courtyard
    • Sahn an dinteriors are divided by rows of columns leading at the far end to the mihrab niche of a qibla wall

8-24 Behram Gur Visiting One of His Wives, an Indian Princess

  • Illustrates the character from a lyrical favorite
  • Round impassive faces of the amorous couple and their servants are a part of their idealization of the Timurid style painting
  • There are no shadows and the colors are all bright although the scene takes place at night
  • In the background there you see a garden in bloom through an opening in the wall
  • Foreground contains a silver stream that has been tarnished back

8-26 Illuminated Tugra of Sultan Suleyman

  • Istanbul, Turkey
  • 1555-60
  • Ink, paint, and gold on paper
  • Oversized Tugra that required more than the usual skill to execute
  • The color scheme of the floral interlace enclosed in the body was inspiried by Chinese blue-and-white ceramics

8.2 Dome of the Rock Jerusalem

  • 687-91
  • The gilt wooden beams in the outer ambulatory are not visable
  • The carpets and ceiling are modern, but probably reflect the original patron's design
  • See 8.3

8.7 Dome in front of the mihrab, Great Mosque
-the melon-shaped, ribbed dome over one bays seems to float over a web of intersecting arches that rise from polylobed
-intersects arches rather than supporting piers
-lushly patterned mosaics w/ inscriptions, geometric motifs, & stylized vegetations clothe the domes in brilliant color and gold

Mosque Plans:
Hypostyle Halls:
-Great Mosque, Cordoba.
-sahn: the courtyard; interior is divided by rows of columns leading, at the far end, to the mihrab niche of a qibla wall, which is orients toward Mecca
Four -iwan Mosque:
-originally associated w/ madrasas (schools for advanced study)
-iwans: monumental barrel-vaulted halls w/ wide-open, arched entrances; faces each other across the sahn
-most were developed in Persia
Central-plan Mosque:
-Selimiye Cami, Edirne: mosque derived from from Istanbul’s Hagia Sophia - typical Ottoman Turkish architecture
-interior is dominated by a large doomed space uninterrupted by structural supports
-worship is directed toward a qibla wall and its mihrab opposite the entrance

8.8. Bowl with kufic border:
-from Samarkand, Uzbekistan; 9th-10th cent; Earthenware w/ slip, pigment, & lead glaze
-a bowl of medium quality, clear lead glaze was applied over a black inscription on a white slip-painted ground
-letters are elongated to fill the rim
-inscriptions translates: ”Knowledge, the beginning of it is bitter to taste, but the end is sweeter than honey”

8.10 Court of the Lions, Palace of the Lions, Alhambra, Granada, Spain
-completed. C. 1370-80
-a private retreat built by Muhammad the fifth (ruled 1362-91) in the late 14th cent.
-a rectangular courtyard named for a marble fountain surrounded by stone lions
-presently sanded
-originally a garden w/ aromatic shrubs, flowers, & small citrus trees between water channels that radiate from the central Lion Fountain
-2nd floor has miradors: projecting rooms w/ windows on 3 sides

8.12 Courtyard, Masjid-I Jami (Great Mosque), Isfahan, Persia (Iran)
-11th-18th cent. View from the northeast
-originally a hypostyle mosque; late 11th cent. Refurbished w/ 2 brick domes; 12th cent. W/ 4 iwans and a monumental gate flanked by paired minarets
-brick masonry on the interior of the iwans is unadorned; facades are sheathed in brilliant blue architectural tilework; typical Islamic feature for why this monument is famous

8.13 Tile mosaic mihrab, from the Madrasa Imami, Isfahan, Persia (Iran)
-c. 1354 (restored). Glazed and painted ceramic
-now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
-11 ft tall, made by cutting each piece of tile individually, including the pieces making up the letters on the curving surface of the niche
-color scheme (white against turquoise and cobalt blue w/ accents of dark yellow & green) is a typical kind of decoration

Tuesday, December 4, 2007

Art History -Chap 7.2 - Images Part 3

7-9 Reconstruction drawing of Old Saint Peter’s basilica, Roma
c.320-27, atruim added in later 4th century, about 394’ long and 210’ wide
Had double aisles instead of the one on each side of the nave
It was built over where they thought Saint Peter was buried, Christ named Peter the head of the church so the church was thought to protect the tomb
IT was called “old” because it was later replaced with a new one in the 16th century
Narthex across the width of the building protects 5 doorways a large central portal into the nave and 2 portals on each sides opening to 4 side aisles
Had a T form made of the aisles

7-13 Plan of the Church of Santa Costanza, Rome
Built like a tholos
Was a central plan church
Built right outside of Rome, mausoleum for Constantine
Made into a church in 1256 for Santa Costanza, meaning christian princess
Tall rotunda with a barrel-vaulted passageway
A ring of paired columns with composite capitols

7-21 Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus
c.359, marble, 4’x8’, Grottoes of Saint Peter
Junius Bassus was a Roman official
Inscription says that he was newly baptized and he was 42 when he died
Has 2 registers, divided by column in equal length, each has an earthly scene
Christ shows up with Peter and Paul, giving them the Christian law, like God gave to Moses
Has typological exegesis, combining Old and New testaments

7-33 Archangle Michael
Panel of a diptych, probably from the court workshop at Constantinople, Early 6th century ivory 17”x5½
Missing the other half which completes the inscription
The angel is shown as a divine messenger holding a staff in his left hand and a spear in the right symbolizing worldly powers
Has an orb below the arch, framed by a wreath, on scallop sled
He is floating in mid air

7-35 Page with Rebecca at the well
From Book of Genesis, either from Syria of Palestine, early 6th century. Tempera, gold and silver paint on purple-dyed vellum, 13 ½ x 9 7/8”
May have been made for imperial patron because purple dye is very costly
Is in codex form written in Greek with picture at bottom
It depicts the story where Rebecca at the Well, it shows a continuous narrative

7-49 archangel Michael, icon
Late 10th or early. Silver with enamel 19x 14”
Blessing viewers with upraised hands
The head and hands are in relief with more intricate relief and enamel decoration. The halo and wings are made with jewels, colored glass, and cloisonné
He always appears in same frontal pose with idealized youthfulness

7-50 Page with David the Psalmist
From Paris Psalter, second half of the 10th century paint on vellum 14x10 ½”
Version of Psalms, a scene with out text
Shows Daviv (author of Psalma)
Based the illustration on classical illustration
3-D figures in receding space with lush foliage and a stream perhaps from ancient Rome
Uses atmospheric prospective

Econ -Unit 4- Chap 15 Notes

Monetary Policy:

  • Consolidated Balance Sheet of the Federal Reserve Banks
    • Assets
      • Two main assets are securities and loans to commercial banks
        • Securities:
          • Government bonds consists largely of Treasury bill, treasury notes, and treasury bonds issued by the gov
            • Part of public debt
          • Mainly bought and sold to influence size of commercial bank reserves and create money by lending
        • Loans to Commercial Banks
          • Commercial banks borrow from FED
            • IOUs are assets to FED because they are claims against the commercial banks
            • To the banks they are liabilities since they have to be repaid
            • Increase revenues
    • Liabilities
      • Reserves of Commercial Banks:
        • Fed requires commercial banks to hold reserves against checkable deposits
        • In FRB they are listed as a liability on the Fed's balance sheet
      • Treasury Deposits:
        • US Treasury keeps deposits in the FRB and draws checks on them to pay obligations
          • Assets to Treasury; liability on Fed's balance sheet
          • Treausry creates and replenishes these deposits by depositing tax reciepts and money borrows from the public
      • Federal Reserve Notes Outstanding
        • When money is circulating outside the FRB it constitutes claims against the assets of the FRB
          • Liability to Feds
  • Tools of Monetary Policy
    • Fed influences money-creating abilities of the commercial banking system
      • Open-Market Operations:
        • Bond markets
        • The Fed's open-market operation consist of the buying of government bonds from, or selling of government bonds to commercial banks and the general public
      • Buying Securities
        • If the Fed decides to have FRB buy bonds from commercial banks or the public the reserves will increase
          • *From Commercial Banks*
            • The commercial banks give up part of their holdings of securities to the FRB
            • FRB increase the reserves of the commercial banks by the amount of the purchase
          • *From the Public*
            • Give up securities to the FRB and gets in payment a check drawn by the FRB on themselves
            • Deposits the check in its account with the Wahoo bank
            • Wahoo sends check against the FRB to a FRB for collection. Wahoo therefore has a increase in reserves
      • Selling Securities
        • Reserves decrease when FRB sells bonds
          • *To Commercial Banks*
            • FRB give up securities that banks acquire
            • Banks pay for those securities by drawing checks against their deposits. The Fed collects those check by reducing the banks reserves
          • *To the Public*
            • FRB sells bond to company, who pay with a check drawn on the Wahoo bank
            • FRB clear this check against the Wahoo bank, reducing Wahoo's reserves
            • Wahoo return canceled check to company reducing company's checkable deposit
    • The Reserve Ratio
      • Fed can manipulate reserve ratio to influence the ability of commercial banks to lend
        • Raising the Reserve Ratio
          • If reserve ratio increase:
            • Increase the amount of required reserves banks must keep
            • Banks lose excess reserves, diminishing ability to create money by lending or they find their reserves deficient and are forced to contract checkable deposits and the money supply
        • Lowering the Reserve Ratio:
          • If the reserve ratio decreased:
            • Bank's lending ability would increase and the banking system's money-creating potential would expand
              • Lowering reserve ratio transforms required reserves into excess reserves and enhances the ability of banks to create new money by lending
            • A change in the reserve ratio affects money creating by:
              • Changing the amount of excess reserves
              • Changing the size of the monetary multiplier
                • Raising the reserve ratio forces banks to reduce the amount of checkable deposits they create through lending
    • The Discount Rate
      • FUNCTION OF CENTRAL BANK: " Lender of last resort"
        • Makes loans to commercial banks
        • FRB changes interest on loans, they charge at the discount rate
        • FRB increase the reserves of the borrowing commercial bank
          • Borrowing from the FRB by commercial banks increase the reserves of the commercial banks and enhances their ability to extend credit
      • Fed has the power to set the discount rate at which banks borrow
      • Fed may raise the discount rate when it wants to restrict the money supply
    • Easy Money and Tight Money
      • How to increase the excess reserves
        • Buy Securities:
          • Purchasing securities in the open market, the Fed can increase commercial bank reserves. When the checks are cleared against it, the commercial banks discover that they have more reserves
        • Lower the Reserve Ratio:
          • Lowering the reserve ratio changes the required reserves into excess reserves and increases monetary multiplier
        • Lower the Discount Rate:
          • Lowering the rate entices commercial banks to borrow more reserves from the Fed
      • These actions are called easy money policy
        • Makes loans less expensive and more available
      • How to reduce AD by limiting the supply of money:
        • Sell Securities:
          • Selling bonds in the market can reduce commercial bank reserves
        • Increase the Reserve Ratio:
          • An increase will strip commercial banks of their excess reserves and decrease the size of the monetary multiplier
        • Raise the Discount Rate:
          • A boost in the rate will discourage commercial banks from borrowing from FRB in order to build up their reserves
      • Actions are called a tight money policy
        • Objective is to tighten the supply of money to reduce spending
    • Relative Importance
      • Buying and selling securities in the open market is the most important of all
        • Has advantage of flexibility
        • Impact is prompt
        • Changing the reserve requirement is less important
          • Fed uses sparingly
          • Can accomplish goals easier through open-market operations
          • Has huge effect on bank profits
  • Monetary Policy, Real GDP, and the Price Level
    • Money policy
      • Cause-Effect Chain
        • See fig 15.2
          • Money Market:
            • Transactions demand is directly related to the nominal GDP
          • Investment:
            • Curve shows relationship between the interest rate and the amount of investment spending
            • Changes in the interest rate mainly affect the investment component of total spending, although they also affect spending on durable consumer goods
            • Changes in the interest rate may affect investment spending by changing the relative attractiveness of purchases of capital equipment versus purchases of bonds
            • Impact of changing interest rates is mainly on investment
              • Investment spending varies inversely with the interest rate
          • Equilibrium GDP
            • Investment spending is one of the determinants of AD
            • The greater investment spending the farther to the right lies the AD curve
      • Effects of an Easy Money Policy
        • To increase the money supply the FRB will take some combination of the following actions:
          • Buy gov. securities from banks and the public in the open market
          • Lower the legal reserve ratio
          • Lower discount rate
      • Effects of a Tight Money Policy
        • AD is excessive relative to the economy's full-employment level of a real output
        • FRB will direct FRB to undertake some combination of the following actions
          • Sell gov. securities to banks and the public in the open market
          • Increase the legal reserve ratio
          • Increase the discount rate
  • Monetary Policy in Action
    • Monetary policy has two key advantages over fiscal policy:
      • Speed and flexibility
      • Isolation from political pressure
    • Compared with fiscal it can be quickly altered
    • Focus on the Federal Fund Rate
      • Fed focuses monetary policy on altering the federal funds rate as needed to stabilize the economy
        • Interest rate the banks charge one another on overnight loans
        • Raise federal funds=tighter monetary policy
        • Lower federal funds=easier monetary policy
      • Prime interest rate is the benchmark rate that banks use as a reference point for a wide range of interest rates on loans to businesses and individuals
      • To increase the Federal fund interest rate the Fed sell bonds in the open market
      • Fed buys bonds from banks and the public when it wants to reduce the Federal funds rates
      • The money supply rises because the increased supply of excess reserves lead to more lending and thus greater creation of checkable-deposit money
    • Recent Monetary Policy
      • To counter potential inflation the Fed reduced reserves in the banking system to raise the interest rate
      • During the last quarter of 2000 the economy slowed and the Fed responded by cutting interest rates by a full percentage point in two increments in 2001
        • Economy went into recession
    • Problems and Complications
      • Limitations and faces real-world complication
        • Lags:
          • Monetary policy is hindered by recognition lag and an operational lag
        • Changes in Velocity:
          • Expenditures can be regarded as the money supply multiplied by the velocity of money
          • Velocity may move counter to changes in the money supply in come circumstances
            • May increase at the same time the Fed reduces the money supply to control inflation
            • AD and inflation may not be restrained by as much as the Fed wants
            • Velocity may decline at the same time the Fed takes measures to increase the money supply to combat recession
        • Cyclical Asymmetry
          • Monetary is highly effective in slowing expansions and controlling inflation, but less reliable in pushing the economy from a severe recession
          • Monetary policy may suffer from cyclical asymmetry
          • Tight money policy could deplete commercial banking to the point where banks would be forced to reduce the volume of loans
          • If commercial banks seek liquidity and are unwilling to lend, the effort of the Fed will be of little avail.
          • Severe recession may undermine business confidence that the investment demand curve is what shifts to the left and frustrates as easy money policy
    • "Artful Management" or "Inflation Targeting"?
      • Manage the money supply to avoid inflation on one hand and recession on the other
        • Emphasis on achieving multiple set of objectives:
          • Maintain price stability
          • Smooth business cycle
          • Maintain high levels of employment
          • Promote economic growth
            • Some think the 'artful' approach is unique to Greenspan and someone less insightful may not be as successful
            • Good to combine artful management with inflation targeting
              • Fed would undertake monetary policy to achieve goal
    • Monetary Policy and the International Economy
      • Linkages among the economies of the world complicate domestic fiscal policy
        • Net Export Effect:
          • US fiscal policy may increase domestic interest rate because the gov. competes with the private sector in getting loans
          • Higher interest rate causes the dollars to appreciate in the foreign market
            • Imports rise, exports fall
              • NET EXPORT EFFECT
          • Lower interest rate discourages the inflow of financial capital to the US
            • Demand for dollars in foreign exchange market falls
            • Dollar goes down in value
              • Expansionary monetary policy increases net exports and strengthens monetary policy
        • Macro Stability and the Trade Balance
          • US net exports should be zero
          • Easy money policy
            • The easy money policy is appropriate for the alleviation of unemployment anf sluggish growth, is compatible with the goal of correcting a balance-of-trade deficit
          • Tight money policy restrains inflation
            • Larger trade deficit
              • A tight money policy that is used to alleviate inflation conflicts with the goal of correcting a balance-of-trade deficit

Art History -Chap 7.2 - Images Parts 2/3

7-31: Church of Sant' Apollinare in Classe

Consecrated in 549 by Bishop Maximus. There is no atrium and its simple exterior reflects the interior space. There is a narthes entrance that spans the width of the ground floor, a tall nave with clerestory ends in a semi-circle apse

7-32: The transfiguration of Christ With Saint Apollinaris, First Bishop of Ravenna

Nothing interferes visually with the movement forward from the entrance to the raised sanctuary which extends from a triumphal-arch opening into the semi-circular apse. The mosaic depicts an array of men and sheep in a stylized landscape. The jeweled cross and head of Christ in the center represent the Transfiguration of Christ's divinity

7-38: Virgin and Child with Saints and Angels

Mary is viewed as the powerful, ever-forgiving intercessor, appealing to her Divine Son on behalf of repentant worshipers. She was also called the Seat of Wisdom and many images depict Mary holding Jesus on her lap in a way that suggests she represents the throne of Solomon. The men standing beside the Virgin Mary on either side are the warrior-saints Theodore and George (said to have slain dragons, representing the triumph of the church over the 'evil serpent' of paganism). The saints are the most stylized of the figures depicted.

7-39: Cathedral of Saint Mark, Venice

Saint Mark's domed compartments produce a complex space with five separate vertical axes. Marble covers the lower walls and golden mosaics glimmer above, covering the vaults, pendentives, and domes. Barrel vaults with domed intersections

7-42: Virgin of Vladimir

Distinctly humanized approach suggests the growing desire reflected in Byzantine art for a more immediate and personal religion. Paintings like this known as the Virgin of Compassion depict the Virgin and Christ Child pressing their cheeks together and gazing tenderly towards each other.

7-44: Christ Pantokrator

This bust length mosaic portray Christ carrying the bible. It fills the central dome of the Church of the Cormition. Hovers in a golden glory, combines two persons of the Trinity- Father and Son, Judge and savior.

7-52: Funerary Chapel Church of the Monastery of Christ in Chora

The funerary chapel was added by Theodore Metochites to the west side of the church. It is entirely painted with themes appropriate to such a setting, the last judgment is painted on the vault of the nave, and Anastasis, Christ's descent into limbo to rescue Adam, Eve, and other virtuous people from Satan

7.4 Jonah Swallowed and Jonah Cast Up:

-two statuettes of a group from the eastern Mediterranean, probably Asia Minor, probably 3rd cent. Marble

-Function is unknown

-Illustrate the biblical story w/ the same literalness and enthusiasm as the paintings on the catacomb ceiling

4.10 Church of Santa Sabina, Rome: 422-32

-constructed by Bishop Peter of Illyria

-most early Christian churches have been rebuilt but this one still looks as much as it did the 5th cent.

-shows basic elements of a basilica: nave w/ side aisles, lit by clerestory windows, ending in a round apse

7.11 Interior, Church of Santa Sabina

-exterior is brickwork; interior is marble veneer and fluted marble columns w/ Corinthian capitals

-columns support round arches, creating a nave arcade, in contrast to a nave colonnade

-spandrels are inlaid w/ marble images of the chalice and paten (plate that holds the bread) , the essential equipment for the Eucharistic rite that took place at the altar

-décor of the upper wall between is lost, and a paneled ceiling covers the rafter roof

-the triforium (the blind wall between the arcade and the clerestory) typically had painting or mosaics w/ scenes from the Old Testament or the Gospels

7.20 Resurrection and Angel w/ Two Marys at the Tomb:

-panel of a diptych, found in Rome, c. 400, ivory

-top register shows the moment of Christ's resurrection in both symbolic and narrative terms. As the soldiers guard his tomb sleep, the evangelists Luke (ox) and Matthew (man in the upper right) acknowledge the event from the clouds

-bottom register shows the moment when Mary, mother of the apostle James, and Mary Magdalen learn from a young man that the tomb is empty

-top panels of the carved doors of the tomb show the Raising of Lazarus, the Gospel story in which Jesus brings a man back to life to prove his divine power

-Christian theme: varied natural poses, soled modeling, architectural details of the tomb, decorative framing patterns

7.25 Transfiguration of Christ:

-mosaic in the apse, Church of the Virgin, Monastery of Saint Catherine, Mount Sinai, Egypt. C. 548-65

-shows the transfigured Christ in a triple blue mandorla (an almond-shaped halo that surrounds Christ's whole figure) against a golden sky that fills the half dome of the apse

-the figure of Christ emits rays of life, & the standing Old Testament prophets Moses & Elijah affirm his divinity

-apostles feel to the ground w/ fear & amazement while Christ is relaxed

-Shows Peter below, John at the left, and James at the right

-Mount tabor is represented as a narrow strip at the bottom, half green & half reflecting the golden light

-abstract contrasts w/ the continuing classical influence

7.29 Emperor Justinian and his attendants

-mosaic on north wall of the apse, Church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy. C. 547

-Justinian carries a large golden paten for the Host and stands next to Maximianus, who holds a golden, jewel-encrusted cross

-priestly celebrants at the right carry the Gospels, encased in a golden, jeweled book cover, symbolizing the coming of the Word, and a censer containing burning incense to purify the altar prior to the Mass

7.30 Empress Theodora and her attendants

-mosaic on south wall of the apse, Church of San Vitale. C. 547

-Theodora stands beneath a fluted shell canopy & singled out by a gold halo-like disk and elaborate crown, carries a huge golden chalice studded w/ jewels

-presents the chalice both as an offering for th Mass and as a gift of great value for Christ

-w/ it she emulates the Magi, depicted at the bottom of her purple robe, who brought valuable gifts to the infant Jesus

-courtyard fountain stand to the left of the panel and patterned draperies adorn the openings at the left and right

7.54 Barma and Postnik. Cathedral of Saint Basil the Blessed, Moscow. 1555-61

-Russian preference for complexity and verticality combined with Byzantine architecture in a spectacular style epitomized by the Cathedral of Saint Basil the Blassed in Moscow

-First Russian Czar, Ivan the 4th, "the Terrible", commissioned the church and the architects (Barma and Postnik)

-Instead of a central dome, the architects employed a typical Russian form called a shater

-surrounded by 8 chapels, each w/ its own dome seeming to grow budlike from the slender stalk of a very tall drum

-plan: a nine-bay, cross-in-square, or quincunx, design surrounded by four more chapels, all on a podium approached by a covered stair

Thursday, November 29, 2007

AP Lit- Hamlet-Act/Scene Notes



Bernardo, Marcellus, Horatio see the ghost of Hamlet's father and decide to tell Hamlet what they've seen




Claudius and Gertrude decide that Hamlet has gone mad. Horatio, Marcellus, and Bernardo tell Hamlet about the ghost they saw and how they thought it was Hamlet's father and Hamlet tells them that he will meet them at midnight to see the ghost himself.




Ophelia tells her brother Laertes about Hamlet's supposed advances towards her. She then tells her father, Polonius who gets really upset.




Hamlet, Horatio, and Marcellus meet at midnight and wait for the ghost to appear. When the ghost does appear and Hamlet speaks to it the ghost doesn't answer, only beckons for Hamlet to follow. Hamlet follows against Horatio and Marcellus' advice to not. After they leave Marcellus and Horatio decide to follow in case Hamlet should need help.




Hamlet follows the ghost and finally the ghost speaks when Hamlet demands that he won't follow anymore unless he answers. The ghost says that he doesn't have much time to explain. He is Hamlet's father. He says that Hamlet must solve his murder. The ghost tells him that his uncle, who is now the king, was the one who killed him. He says that his uncle killed him and married his widowed wife to become king. The ghost then leaves right before Horatio and Marcellus enter. They ask what happened, but Hamlet refuses to tell, but makes them swear (with the ghosts help) to never repeat what happened/what they saw that night.




  • Polonius send Reynaldo to spy on Laertes
  • Ophelia tells Polonius that Hamlet came in while she was sewing and held her
  • They go to tell the king


    ACT 2 SCENE 2:


  • Claudius and Gertrude tell Rosencrantz and Guildenstern to talk to Hamlet
  • Polonius explains to Gertrude and Claudius what Hamlet did and reads to them a letter from Hamlet addressed to Ophelia
  • They determine him mad and agree to spy on him to see if it is the truth
  • Polonius speaks to Hamlet, Hamlet pretends he doesn't know who he is, but asks if he has a daughter
  • Rosencrantz and Guildenstern talk to Hamlet, but Hamlet knows why they came to speak to him and gets them to confess that his mother sent them.
  • Hamlet tells the players to do a special scene
  • Hamlet's soliloquy about why he hasn't killed Claudius yet


    ACT 3 SCENE 1:


  • Hamlet's "to be or not to be" soliloquy
  • Claudius and Polonius hide while Hamlet speaks to Ophelia
    • Hamlet denies sending Ophelia notes and asks about her father
    • Claudius and Polonius decide that Hamlet is mad and should go to England


    ACT 3 SCENE 2


  • Hamlet instructs the players what to do for their scene. He asks Horatio to watch Claudius' reaction during the play
  • The players pretty much reenact the death of King Hamlet by Claudius
  • Horatio says that he did see the king react during the scene
  • Ends with another soliloquy by Hamlet about how he will be rude to his mother and show his anger, but he will not kill her


    ACT 3 SCENE 3


  • Claudius tells Rosencrantz and Guildenstern to take Hamlet with them to England
  • Polonius tells Claudius that Hamlet is going to speak to his mother privately
  • Claudius speaks a soliloquy in the form of a prayer, admitting what he did and asking for help from the angels
    • Hamlet hears the prayer and tells Claudius he shall spare him for now


    ACT 3 SCENE 4


  • Polonius hides in Gertrude's room to hear what they are going to talk about
  • Hamlet starts off in a rude manner, talking to his mother
  • Polonius accidentally reveals himself and Hamlet kills him
  • Hamlet confronts Gertrude about his father's premature death. Accusing her of having a part
    • The ghost shows up and tells Hamlet to talk to his mother
    • Gertrude truly think him mad when Hamlet starts talking to a ghost that she can't see or hear
  • Hamlet tells his mother to live purer
  • He takes Polonius' body and leaves


    ACT 4 SCENE 1


  • Gertrude tells Claudius, Rosencrantz, and Guildenstern about how Hamlet killed Polonius and took his body, and how he spoke to no one


    ACT 4 SCENE 2


  • Rosencrantz and Guildenstern confront Hamlet about what he did and ask where he put the body
  • Hamlet refuses to tell them, saying that he has to look out for his own interests


    ACT 4 SCENE 3


  • Rosencrantz and Guildenstern bring Hamlet to see Claudius
    • Claudius asks where Polonius is and Hamlet once again refuses to tell
    • Claudius tells Hamlet to go to England
    • After Hamlet leaves Claudius has a mini soliloquy about killing Hamlet


    ACT 4 SCENE 4


  • Fortinbras comes and tells Hamlet that he is against Poland and wants to travel through Denmark
  • Hamlet says another soliloquy and reveal his shame that he has not killed Claudius yet
    • He thinks that if Fortinbras can lead a worthless fight he should be able to take care of Claudius, but then again, he thinks Fortinbras a fool


    ACT 4 SCENE 5


  • Ophelia is revealed to have gone mad after the death of her father
  • The people are calling for Laertes to be king
  • Laertes comes back and accuses Claudius of having his father
    • Claudius tells him that he is dead
    • Laertes sees what Ophelia has become
    • Claudius tells Laetres that if he is responsible for Polonius' death he could have the kingdom, but if not, he would help him get revenge on who really did it


    ACT 4 SCENE 6


  • Horatio gets a letter from Hamlet saying that his ship was attacked by pirates and that he convinced them to bring him back to Denmark
    • Hamlet also tells Horatio to deliver his other letters to the king


    ACT 4 SCENE 7


  • At the opening Claudius has finished telling Laertes what Hamlet did
    • He explains why he didn't turn Hamlet in for a trial
      • Gertrude loves him too much and Hamlet has the support of the people
  • Claudius gets the letter from Hamlet and reads it aloud
    • He then convinces Laertes to kill Hamlet by poisoning him
  • Gertrude comes and tells the two about the death of Ophelia
    • She drowned


    AC 5 SCENE 1


  • Hamlet and Horatio meet up with two 'clowns' and they hear them talking about the death of someone. They are digging a grave. They are debating whether of not she deserves a proper burial
    • They mention Hamlet being mad in England, not knowing who they are talking to
  • The grave turns out to belong to Ophelia and Hamlet walked in right before the start of the funeral
  • Hamlet reveals himself and Laertes fights him
    • Gertrude gets them to stop and Hamlet leaves.
    • Claudius assures Laertes that he will have his chance to slay Hamlet