Newest Assignments and Dates (If assignment is online it shall be stated below)

  • 03-17-2008 - 03-21-2008 -Spring Break (FREEDOM)
  • 03-21-2008 -Art History Outline and images
  • Still during spring break: Read Lord of the Flies for techniques/devices, 3 allusions due.

Sunday, April 6, 2008

Chap 19

19-1 Hyacinthe, Louis XIV

- 1701, oil on canvas. 9'2" x 7'10

-richly costumed monarch Louis XIV or Le roi Soleil ("the sun King")

-Poses in the robe of state with gold fleors-de-lis and white carmine. The king is being showed as the curtains are being pulled back. He is showing off is leg which he was proud of.

- The facial expressing makes Louis human with a direct glaze to the viewer

-Made for grandson Philip but he kept it and ordered a copy for his grandson later. It was common for people to order multiple copies of something.


19-2 Gianlorenzo Bernini. Baldacchino

-1624-33 gilt bronze 100' Chair of peter shrine 1657-66 gilt bronze, marble, stucco and glass pier decorations 1627-41 gilt bronze and marble

-Combines architecture, sculpture, and painting

-Twisted columns symbolize union of Old and New Testament

-Composite capitols use Ionic and Corinthian order, entablature with crowning element topped with an orb and a cross, putti angles decorate entablature.

- Marks Peter's grave and a monument to Urban VII and family (honeybees and suns, and laurel leaves climbing on vines are his emblems)


19-3 Saint Peter's Basilica and Piazza , Vatican , Rome

-Carlo Maderno, façade, 1607-26, Bernini piazza 1656-57

- Bernini designed the colonnade to form a large double piazza at the entrance of Saint Peter's

- He had to work with an open irregular space, with the fountain and the obelisk already in place. It surrounds an oval piazza with 2 curved porticoes with Doric columns; they are connected to two straight porticoes that lead to the church facade

- Bernini said that the porticoes represented the "motherly arms of the church" reaching out to the world


19-6 Facade, Church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane

-1665-67 Borromini

-The columns and the deep niches create a great contrast between light and shadow

- the facade has a strong vertical in the center by putting a statue niche above the door, then above that a windowed niche with a pointed canopy, then a large cartouche held up by angels in extremely high relief

-the facade is toped with a balustrade and the pointed frame of the cartouche


19-9 Gianlorenzo Bernini. Saint Teresa of Avila in Ecstasy

-1645-52. Marble, height of the group 11'6". Cornaro Chapel

-Represents a vision seen by a Spanish mystic, where an angel pierced her body with an arrow, taking her to a state of religious ecstasy or oneness with God.

-The angel seems to float on the clouds, they are cut from a heavy mass of solid marble supported on a hidden pedestal and by metal bars embedded in the chapel walls

- Captures movements and emotions and uses different textures and colors in the white marble, the angel's gauzy drapery that seems like silk and Teresa's seems like a woolen robe.

-You can tell that there is a body underneath the heavy drapery event though you can only see her hands, head, and feet.

-the rays if light are made from gilt bronze they are illuminated from a hidden window above.


19-10 Gianlorenzo Bernini. David

-1623, marble, height 5'7"

-David bends at the waist and is twisted far to one side

-It's a more mature version of David, with a ferocious expression, tightly clenched mouth and straining muscles

- It includes the viewer in the action because the seems to be someone behind the viewer, this represented a new direction of art


19-15 Pietro da Cortona. Triumph of the Barberini

- ceiling fresco in the Gran Salone, Palazzo Barberini, Rome . 1632-39

- allegory of the virtues of the papal family

- below the center of the vault, seated on top of a pyramid of clouds are personifications of Time and the fates, and Divine Providence. Divine Providence gestures toward 3 giant bees surround by a huge laurel wreath held up by Faith, Hope, and charity.

-Immortality offers a crown of stars and other figures are presenting the cross keys and the crown of the papacy

-Around the figures are the Roman gods and goddesses that represent the pope's triumph over the vices


19-16 Giovanni Battista Gaulli. Triumph of the name of Jesus

-ceiling fresco with stucco figures in the vault of the Church of Il Gesú , Rome 1672-85

- It unifies architecture, sculpture, and painting. All the elements come together to create the illusion that the clouds and angels are floating down through an opening in the vault

-It is focused off centered on the golden Aura around the letters IHS, which is the insignia of the Jesuits and the monogram of Jesus.

-It is a Last Judgment piece; the Elect are rising toward the name of God and the Damned plummeting toward the nave floor.


19-19 Caravaggio. Entombment.

-From the Vittrici Chapel, Church of Santa Maria in Vallicell, Rome . 1603-4. Oil on canvas 9'10" x 7 15/16"

-The viewer's perspective is from within the Burial pit that Jesus is being lowered into

-The figures form a triangle, the angular elements are repeated with the projecting edge of the stone slab, Jesus' bent legs, the akimbo man, the bunched coat, the spaces between the raised hands, and the knock-kneed stance of the man in the right.

-Mary Magdalen and the Virgin don't really intrude in the scene because most of the light is focused on Jesus, the man holding him on the right, and a young John the Evangelist


19-20 Artemisia Gentileschi. Judith and the Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes

-1625. Oil on canvas, 6' ½" x 4'7"

-Judith Triumph over the Assyrian General Holofernes

-She uses the Baroque naturalist and tenebrist effects showing Judith still holding the sword and hiding the candle light as the maid stuffs the head into the sack 


19-23 Central block of the Garden façade, Palais de Vesailles

-Hardouin-Mansart built the additional wings and the renovation of the central block and the matching gardens.

-The bottom story (3 story building) is slightly rusticated and lined with arched windows separated by Ionic pilasters.

-the attic level has rectangular windows flanked by pilaster, and it has flat terraced roof

-The whole design is a balance of horizontals and verticals with rectangular spaced projecting blocks with open, colonnade porches


19-24 Jules Harduin-Mansart and Charels Le Brun. Hall of Mirrors, Palais de Versailles

-Begun 1678. Length about 240'

-the interior wall is lined with Venetian glass mirrors, which were very expensive in that time.

-The mirrors reflect the light coming in through the windows on the opposite side, it gives the impression that the room is much larger.

-Le Brun painted the ceiling with scenes glorifying the reign of Louis XIV who was associated with Apollo the sun god


19-27: Georges de la Tour. Magdalen with the Smoke Flame

  • 1640, Oil on canvas
  • Simplified setting and a light source (typical of La Tour)
  • Hand and skull act as devices to establish a foreground plane
  • Compression of the figure within the pictorial space lends a sense of intimacy
  • Light is the unifying element
  • Mary has put aside her rich clothing and jewels and meditates on the frailty and vanity of human life


    19-28: Claude Lorrain. Landscape with Merchants

  • 1630, Oil on canvas
  • Idyllic scene in which elegant man proffer handsome goods to a passerby as the sun rises
  • Huge trees and a busy foreground
  • Creates landscapes with figures
  • Painting is the epitome of the orderly, arranged, classical landscapes


    19-29: Nicolas Poussin. Landscape with Saint John on Patmos

  • 1640, Oil on canvas
  • Consistent perspective progression from the picture plane back into the distance through a clearly defined foreground, middle ground, and back ground
  • Zones are marked by alternating sunlight and shade and architectural elements
  • Ruined temple with obelisk in the middle
  • Precisely placed trees and clouds take on a solidity of form that seems almost as structural as architecture
  • Eagle is the symbol of John


    19-30: Jakob Pandtauer. Benedictine Monastery Church

  • Built high on a promontory overlooking the Danube River
  • Combines church, monastery, library, and guest quarters that evolved into a splendid palace to house the traveling court
  • Flanked by two long parallel wings, one of which contains a grand hall and the other, the monastery's library
  • Wings are joined at the lower level by a sections with a curving façade forming a terrace overlooking the river in front of the church
  • Large windows and galleries take advantage of the river view, while colossal pilasters and high bulbous-dome towers emphasize the buildings verticality


    19-32: Pedro de Ribera. Portal of the Hospicio de San Fernando, Madrid

  • 1722
  • Severe brick structure
  • Uses classical elements and organizes them symmetrically
  • Structural forms are turned into projecting and receding layers overlaid with foliage
  • Carved curtains looped back
  • Florid styling was carried by conquistadors


    19-34: Jusepe de Ribera. Martyrdom of Saint Bartholomew

  • 1634, Oil on canvas
  • Apostle, Bartholomew, is being martyred by being skinned alive
  • Ribera highlighted the intensely realistic aged faces with dramatic Caravaggesque tenebrism
  • The bound Bartholomew looks heavenward as his executioner tests the knife that he will soon use on his still-living victim
  • Combined classical and Caravaggesque technique


    19-35: Francisco de Zurbaran. Saint Serapion

  • 1628, Oil on canvas
  • Depicts martyrdom, but represented with understated control
  • Zurbaran was associated with monastic orders for which he executed his major commissions
  • Portrays the martyrdom of Serapion
    • Sacrificed himself in exchange for the Christian captives

      The dead man's pallor, rough hands, and the course ropes emerge from the off-white of his creased Mercedarian habit


    19-37: Diego Velaquez: Water carrier of Seville

  • 1619, Oil on canvas
  • Arranged elements of his paintings with mathematical rigor
  • Objects and figures allow the artist to exhibit his virtuosity in rendering sculptural volumes and contrasting textures illuminated by dramatic natural light
    • Light reacts to surfaces: reflecting off the glazed water pot at the left and the matte (dull) jug


    19-38: Diego Velaquez. The Surrender at Breda (The Lances)

  • 1634-35, Oil on canvas
  • The Spanish governor has defeated the Dutch at Breda
  • Opposing armies stand on a hilltop overlooking a vast valley where the City of Breda burns and soldiers are still deployed
  • The Dutch commander hands over the keys of Breda to the victorious Spanish commander
  • Painting represents a courtly ideal of gentle-manly conduct
  • Velaquez displays his ability to arrange a large number of figures into an effective composition


    19-39: Diego Velaquez. Las Menina (The Maids of Honor)

  • Draws the viewer directly into its action, for the viewer is standing, in the space occupied by King Philip and his queen (you can see their reflection in the mirror)
  • The central focus is on their daughter in the center
  • Used a minimum of under-drawing building up his forms with layers of loosely applied paint and finishing off the surfaces with dashing highlights
    • Captures the appearance of light on surfaces
  • A personal statement in its own day, not a true court porttrait


    19-40: Bartolome Esteban Murillo. The Esquilache Immaculate Conception

  • 1645-50, Oil on canvas
  • Depicts controversial idea that Mary was born sin free
  • Artist was given specific instructions for the painting:
    • Mary would be dressed in blue and white, hands folded in prayer, as she is carried by angels heavenward

    19-45: Peter Paul Rubens. The Raising of the Cross

  • 1610-11, Oil on canvas
  • Side panels contain related but independent images
    • Wings extend the action of the central scene and surrounding landscape across the vertical framing
  • In the center: Herculean figures strain to haul upright the wooden cross with Jesus already stretched upon it
  • Left: Followers of Jesus join in morning
  • Right: Indifferent soldier supervise the execution


    19.46 Henri IV Receiving the Portrail of Mare de' Medici

    - 1621-25; oil on canvas

    - Henri falls in love with Marie, shown by Cupid and Hymen (God of Marriage), supreme Roman god, Jupiter, and wife, Juno look down

    - encourage to abandon war for love; puttis play with his armor

    -political propaganda of the highest order


    19.48 Charles I at the Hunt. Anthony van Dyck

    - 1635; oil on canvas; 8'11'' x 6'11''

    - King portrayed as truthfully and an quietly imposing figure

    - read for hunt; shown taller

    - tree branches bow gracefully toward him


    19.50 Still Life with Flower, Goblet, Dried Fruit, and Pretzels. Clara Peeters

    - 1611; oil on panel; 19 ¾ x 25 ¼ ''

    - arranged rich tableware and food against neutral, almost black backgrounds

    - goblet and bowl contrast with simple pewter ware, same as flowers with pretzels

    - pretzels piled high, Baroque elements, with complex multiple curves


    19.51 Catharina Hooft and her Nurse. Frans Hals

    - 1620; oil on canvas; 33 ¾ x 25 ½ ''

    - captures vitality of a gesture and fleeting moment in time

    - for posterity the great pride of the parents in their child and their wealth; rich fabrics, laces, and expensive toys (golden rattle)

    - acknowledges views as a loving family member and nurse tries to distract with an apple


    19.52 Officers of the Haarlem Militia Company of Saint Adrian. Hals

    - 1627; oils on canvas; 6' x 8'8''

    - Hal's composition turns the group potrail into a lively social event while still maintaining a strong underlying geometry of diagonal lines - gestures, banners and sashes - balanced by perpendiculars of tables, window, tall glass, and striped banner

    - very brilliant with the black suits, hats with white ruffs, and sashes of the rose, white, and blue


    19.53 Self-Portrait Judith Leyster

    - 1635; oil on canvas; 29 3/8 x 25 5/8 ''

    - Leyster's know for informal scenes of daily life; moralistic theme

    - artist pauses her work momentarily; as if the viewer had just entered the room

    - elegant trees and fine chair are symbols of artist succession

    - her subject, man playing a violin

    - immediately sees difference between painted portrail and painted painting

    - narrow range of colors dispersed on composition and warm spotlighting are typical of Leyster's mature style


    19.54 Captain Frans Banning Cocq Mustering His Company (The Night Watch). Rembrandt van Rijn

    - 1642; oil on canvas; 11'11'' x 14'4''

    - dense layer if grime and darkened varnish on if dark background architecture was thought to be a night scene, The Night Watch

    - but after cleaning and restoring, it shows the rich colors

    - dramatic group composition shows a company forming for a parade in an Amsterdam street

    - Rembrandt added several colorful but seemingly unnecessary figures

    - officers stride purposefully forward, the rest of the men and several mischievous children mill about

    - young girl at the left, carrying a chicken and wearing a money pouch, unusual that attempts have been made to find symbolic or ironic meaning


    19.57 Self-Portrait. Rembrandt van Rijn

    - 1659; oil on canvas; 33 ¼'' x 26''

    - shows Rembrandt's sensitivity to the human condition


    19.60 Maas at Dordrecht

    - 1660; oil on canvas; 3'9 ¼'' x 5'7''

    -  dramatic change of idealized scenes

    - Cuyp and other Dutch painters represented the country as they saw it

    - At Dordrecht, the wide, deep harbor of the Maas River was always filled with cargo ships and military vessels, and Cuyp's seascapes express pride in the city's contribution to the United Butch Republic's prosperity, independence, and peaceful life


    19.63 View of delft. Jan Vermeer

    - 1662; oil on canvas; 38 ½ x 46 ¼''

    - doesn't paint a photographic reproduction of the scene

    - moves buildings around to create an ideal composition

    -endows the city with a timeless stability created by the careful placement of the buildings, the quiet atmosphere, and the clear, eve light

    - the camera obscura would have enhanced optical distortions that led to the "bleading" of highlights, which creates the illusion of brilliant light but doesn't dissolve the underlying form


    19.64 Woman Holding a Balance. Jan Vermeer

    - 1664; oil on canvas; 16 ¾ x 15''

    - perfect balance creates a monumental composition and a moment of supreme stillness

    -woman contemplates the balance and so calls our attention to the act of weighing and judging

    - her hand and the scale are central, but directly over her, on the wall of the room, hangs a large painting of the Last Judgment

    -a metaphor for eternal judgment

    -woman's moment of quiet introspection before she touches gold or pearls also recalls the vanitas theme of the transience of life, allowing the painter to comment on the ephemeral quality of material things


    19.70 St. Paul's Cathedral. Christopher Wren

    - designed in 1673; built 1675-1710

    - on the main (west) front, two stages of paired Corinthian columns support a carved pediment

    -the deep-set porches and the columned pavilions atop the towers create dramatic areas of light and shadow

    -the huge size of the cathedral and its triumphant verticality, complexity of form, and chiaroscuro effects make it a major monument of the English Baroque

    -simple marble slab that forms his tomb in the crypt of the cathedral, he had engraved: "If you want to see his memorial, look around you."




Chap 19

Baldachin: Canopy

Example: Baldacchio

Travertine: Porous stone that is less costly and more easily worked with than marble

Example: Piazza Navona

Tenebrism: Forms emerge from a dark background into a strong light that often falls from a single source outside the painting

Example: Calling of Saint Matthew

Parterres: Planting beds

Example: Embroidered planters located in Palais de Versailles

Prix de Rome: Prestigious scholarship offered by the French Academy

Example: Given to Hyacinthe Rigaud

Retablos: Spanish for "altarpiece" The screen placed behind an altar

Example: Portal of the Hospicio do San Fernando

Nepotism: favoritism shown to relatives or close friends by those in power

dry point: Sharp needles used to scratch shallow lines in a plate

breakfast pieces: showing a table set for a meal of bread and fruit

camera obscura: A dark box with a hole in one side sometimes with a lens, it operates when a bright light shines through the hole. It projects an upside down version of the image on the interior wall which then can be traced

vanitas: an image in which all the images symbolize the transience of life

still life: paintings artfully arranged on table, comes from stilleven a Dutch word

flower pieces: Still-life painting in which cut-flower arrangements

Bays: vertical divisions

    Ex: Banqueting House, White-hall palace, London. Indigo Jones

clapboard: horizontal plank sliding

    Ex: Parson Capen House. Topsfield

Limners: face painters

    Ex: Mrs. Freake and Baby Mary; Anonymous "Freake Painter"

Baroque: "imperfect pearl" to designate certain formal characteristics of Art and its history; "absolute unity"

    Ex: practically everything in this chapter

impasto: thickly applied pigments