Newest Assignments and Dates (If assignment is online it shall be stated below)

  • 03-17-2008 - 03-21-2008 -Spring Break (FREEDOM)
  • 03-21-2008 -Art History Outline and images
  • Still during spring break: Read Lord of the Flies for techniques/devices, 3 allusions due.

Thursday, April 3, 2008

Huerta's Inferno

The 5 Layers of Huerta’s Hell

Level 1
Huerta was walking down a lonely road on his way home from work. His arms were heavy with the day's newspapers (he was a paperboy) and his bike was busted. He let out a sigh as he thought "Just 5 more minutes and I'll be home," but no sooner had the thought entered his mind, when a black car appeared and two armed men forced him into the backseat and placed a bag over his head. He awoke and saw a man leaning against the side of a busted table nearby, his back to him. Huerta grabbed a shovel randomly laying next to him on the hard cuboidal shaped concrete bricks. He approached the figure slowly, shovel in hand, ready to knock him a good one, “Either you tell me who you are, or I make you friends with my shovel here!” He said as bravely as he could, trying his hardest to not let his voice get all squeaky with fear. The man glanced back his way “Homie, you better be joking! I save your life and you threaten me with a freakin' shovel?" He paused examining Huerta's pale face with a bored expression, "I'm Laquanda, and I’ve been trapped in the Stratum Basale for the last month or so.” “Stratum Basale? What’s that?” “It’s the first floor of this house, the Epidermis House, they call it.” "Epidermis house?" Huerta questioned "You must live in a box to not have heard of this place" Huerta did answer, but he didn't put down his shovel either. He was an economy student, he was supposed to stay in his box. "There are five floors, each more gruesome then the last. The only way out is to make it to the 5th floor" "Well why haven't you tried to get out" "Pssh, I did try, I barely made it back down here in one piece" Laquanda froze, his hand moved quickly to the inner part of the jacket he wore, he took out a small knife "Hey! What's with the knife?" Huerta yelled out panicked, Laquanda threw the knife and it hit it's target dead center. The sound of the shovel hitting the cuboidal stone echoed through out the dank basement. He got to his feet and pulled the dagger out of the columnar walls. A spider-like creature bigger then this fist plopped to ground at his feet. "What is that thing?" Huerta asked, he was as white a ghost and had almost peed his pants (but he wasn't about to admit that) "They're called Stratum Germinative, just a single bite and you join the rest of those keratinocyte ghosts that haunt this place. I" "We have to get out of here" Huerta said, his voice laced with fear. " "Since there are two of us now, I guess it's worth a go" Laquanda said pocketing his weapon as he walked up to Huerta. The short Mexican could do nothing but take in the sheer height of his ally. He was TALL. "Let's get moving then. They only open the doors to the outside world once every two weeks, and that two week mark is today" Huerta followed Laquanda to an old beaten up door on the other side of the room. "You ready? This isn't going to be easy, dude." Huerta nodded his head repeatedly at a rather quick pace, as if trying to reassure himself. Laquanda looked at him with a cocked brow. "Okay, dude. You need to calm down" He stopped to make to sure he was ready for the fight that was sure to come, he bent down and tied his shoe, you don't want to worry about tripping when you're facing those things. Huerta noticed a small cut on his leg through a tear in his pants "What happened?" Laquanda straightened himself quickly, "Just a cut, nothing big. We're going to see much worse" He pulled open the creaky door and led Huerta out of the columnar and cuboidal room and up a long staircase.

Level 2
Laquanda and Huerta entered the most elegant and luxurious ballroom they had ever seen. It consisted of 8-10 layers of grand crystal windows that reached the ceiling. Oil paintings hung around the walls, intermingling with the windows, and casting off beautiful lights… Out of those lights arose shadows which slowly materialized into ghosts. They appeared friendly at first, doing nothing more than smiling and dancing, and a merry wave here and there. But as the minutes passed, they morphed, just ever so slowly. Their arms and legs duplicated, and became long and spindly, but their bodies shrunk continuously, until all that was left was a dead and shrunken skull atop 8 hairy legs. “Keratinocytes” whispered Laquanda in a hushed tone, “we need to leave, NOW!” And with that final word, Laquanda and Huerta took off across the ball room, running for their lives, with Huerta screaming at the top of his lungs. They climbed flight after flight of stairs, trying to put some distance between them and the Keratinocytes, but those hairy creatures had come together to make a gigantic spider webs, thus blocking the left exit, and their last hope.
The Keratinocytes were now closing in, their legs tapping impatiently, anxious to feed. Huerta appeared to be reciting his will and Laquanda closed his eyes and held is breath, waiting for the bite that never came.
Echoing around the ballroom walls was a Tarzan-like cry uttered by a shirtless man atop a balcony on the opposite wall. Across his chest the word “Roach” was written in bold letters. And without further ado, he cut a thread from the spider web and swung across the room. He was of course, aiming to land close enough to Huerta and Laquanda, so as to make a quick and speedy exit, but instead he ran-over, head-first, a dozen Keratinocytes.
That moments distraction was all Huerta and Laquanda needed to slip past the keratinocytes, and follow a very fast, yet slightly disoriented Roach up the staircase and out of harms way.

Level 3
All was silent on this floor, a sense of calm overwhelmed Huerta and Laquanda, despite the abnormal floating candles in the dark.
They agreed to rest and catch their breath before going an further, and as they did so, Roach recounted how he himself go into the house.
“All I remember was milking goats in Lebanon, and that’s a lot harder than you think. You’ve got to treat the goats with respect; like a sheet of music, ‘cause once you hit a wrong chord--”
“Just tell us how you got here!” yelled Laquanda and Huerta.
“Alright, alright,” replied Roach “Well, like I said, I was just out milking the goats when I heard this strange noise outside. I poked my head out to see what was going on and called out to see if it was my mom or something, but there was nothing. So I went back inside to continue milking the goat. And as I sat down on the stool, I noticed that my milk pail was gone, I turned around to look for it, but the last thing I remember was that milk pail coming at my head.”
“That’s it? Someone whacked you with a flimsy pail and you were out????” asked Laquanda almost indignantly.
“Well, it was more than half-filled…”
“Roach, don’t even talk to me anymore” said Laquanda
The silence lasted only for a few minutes before a strong wind momentarily blew the candles out. When they reignited, Roach, Huerta, and Laquanda looked at the ceiling and saw row after row of dead and flattened keratinocytes covered in tonofilament spider webs lining the walls.
Large glass doors now appeared before them, and they heard black sludge ooze from the wall and floor cracks .
“Get away from the walls! That black sludge, it’s keratohyalin, it turns the tonofilament spider webs into keratinocytes!” screamed Roach.
No sooner had he said it, when dozens of keratinocytes scuttled down the walls, heading for the three. They ran for the glass doors, jumping and leaping over keratinocytes, anxious to miss those deadly stingers. Panting, Laquanda made it through the glass doors first, followed closely by Huerta, but poor Roach never did.
He was just inches away when the glass doors slide shut. Roach desperately beat his hands against the doors screaming “OPEN UP! OPEN UP!!!!!” But try as they might, Huerta and Laquanda could not get the door to budge. They watch in horrified silence as Roach is submerged by keratinocytes.
They hear an evil laugh above and manage to catch a glimpse of a figure on a balcony, and watch as the figure struggles with what appears to be a pump, now emitting a green gas. They hear a stir on the other side of the glass doors, and watch as Roach slowly gets on his feet.
“ROACH! ROOOAAACCCHHH!!!” screamed Huerta.
But by know Roach had started mumbling incoherent descriptions about llamas and Lebanon.
“Shut up! He can’t hear you!” yelled Laquanda.
“But we can’t just leave him there!” retorted Huerta.
“Look, that’s Apoptosis gas and unless you want to--”
They heard a small explosion, and Roach fall on his knees, headless.
“ROACH!!!!!!!” cried Huerta.
“Unless you want to go the way of that goat-milker, I suggest we leave now, seeing as how the Apoptosis gas could leak through the cracks any minute!”
Suddenly the keratinocytes on the wall began to secrete a new liquid (“lamellar granules” shuddered Laquanda).
The silvery lamellar granules became compacted, and rushed with force at the glass doors, breaking them. But by then Huerta and Laquanda had gone, and were well on the way to the next floor.

Level 4
Laquanda and Huerta raced up the stairs panting, not far ahead Laquanda could see the door leading to next floor. "We're almost there!" he called out. They burst through the multi-colored door and shut it behind them as quickly as they possibly could. A white light filled the room, so bright they couldn't see a thing. "Where are we?" Huerta ask as he attempted to shield his eyes from the burning light, "Either the 4th or 5th level, I'm not sure. This place changes sometimes, as soon as the light dies down we'll be able to tell which floor we came out on" As he said those words the searing light began to fade away to a dull yellow light that they could both handle easily. The room was a lot smaller compared to the last few rooms they had run through. The room was filled with old grey keratinocytes, they came in the form of what seemed to be simply the outline of elderly people, they didn't seem to notice them and they moved very slowly. "Why are you so old and see through?" Huerta whispered. "The one's here are transparent, something about the Stratum Lucidum. Keratinocytes move through each floor when they get older, while new ones are being added to house on that bottom floor where you woke up at" "You mean . . ." Huerta paused as he tried to comprehend what Laquanda was saying. "You mean, we were supposed to become keratinocytes?" "That's exactly what I'm saying. As they move through each floor they make their way to the 5th level where they will be let go." "Let go?" "They get rid of them, new ones are coming in, they don't need the old keratinocytes on the verge of death. Come on, we need to keep going" As they followed the old hollowed out wall, avoiding the old geezers hobbling along a loud new voice me their ears. "Hold it right there!" They spin around and see a keratinocyte in the form of a young short girl with chinky eyes standing in front them. "Where are you two going?" She yelled out. "Out the door" Laquanda answered. "OBJECTION!" She yelled out, "You're not going anywhere . . . Unless you take some of this pan de ube with you" The keratinocyte pulled a plastic bag out from behind her back containing the said bread. The two stared at her in shock. "Who are you?" Laquanda asked. "My name's Jessyca, I lead all the passing keratinocytes to the 5th level to be shed from the Epithelium House. " "So you know the way out then?" Huerta asked quickly and without thinking, which was totally normal for him. "Oh yeah, I even know how to get out without passing by Chrystina Taylor." "What's a Chrystina Taylor?" Huerta asked Jessyca gave him a funny look, "Surely you know who she is, I mean, Chrystina has been the queen of the Epithelium House since before that little Stratum Germinative made me a keratinocyte." "Chrystina Taylor is the ruler of the keratinocytes. Her step-father ruled and left the title to Chrystina, even though he has a daughter of his own. Haleigh, the mostawesomest of all the keratinocytes, was left with nothing after he was shed, but that's not going to last much longer" That last bit Laquanda had muttered under his breath. "I'm sorry, what was that?" Jessyca asked "I missed that last thing you said" "Nothing" Laquanda said before turning his back to her, "We need to keep going." "Where are you two heading to?" "We're heading for shedding" Huerta replied. "I can show you a short cut if you would like" "Sure, that's cool" Laquanda nodded, "Let's get going"

Level 5
Haleigh watched as the trio raced up the staircase from a heavily shadowed spot on the beams above them. Soon the Epidermis would be hers once and for all. Soon she would take what was hers!

King Swain lay on his death bed, his two daughters stood before him. One, his daughter from his first marriage, beautiful and strong-headed, the other, his step-daughter powerful and intimidating. "Girls" he began, his voice quivering from the strain "I would want nothing more then to let both of you rule, but I can only choose one to take on the responsibilities of running the Epidermis . . .Chrystina, you will be the next ruler of this house."

Haleigh practically shock from her rage. "I will get what is mine" she whispered.

"Come on" Jessyca said as led them through a darkened path lit by only a few lamps hanging from the ceiling. "Where are we, the throne room isn't anywhere near here" "No, I told you that I was going to take you to the exit without passing through the throne room, remember?" Tracy frowned as he followed Jessyca through the hall. Suddenly the lights were gone and the group was engulfed in darkness, they could hear the sounds of footsteps, of a small gasp, someone was struggling. Then silence. The lights flickered back on. "Where's Laquanda?!" Jessyca called out, "I think we better worry about ourselves first, look!" Huerta said pointing further down the narrow hallway where an army of spider keratinocytes were making their way towards them. "Oye! It's time to get going!" Jessyca grabbed Huerta's upper arm and turned around and began running as fast as she could. She pulled him into a darkened turnoff that Huerta hadn' t noticed when they had walked past it. "Come on!" Jessyca yelled again. She let go of his arm and assumed he would follow her when she continued to run. In the middle of the hallway coming up quickly as Jessyca raced through was a thin plastic orange fence, it was barely visible through the darkness, but she saw it and she leapt as high as she could . . . Her foot caught in the fence and she fell. Her slipper was torn, "Oh no!" She cried out as Huerta stopped to help her up, the Keratinocytes were close. Their eyes got wide as she stumbled to her feet, ripping the shoe off her foot, it was too messed up to run in. "We have to keep going" Huerta yelled, panic filled his voice. They took off again. And once again they were forced to ground. This time they ran into something moving. "Laquanda!" Jessyca yelled out. "Finally! I found you guys!" He looked up and saw the hoard of Keratinocytes rampaging towards them, "Yeah, we should get going" He dragged the two to their feet and led them down the hall he was just exited from. "This way!" He called out. They burst through extremely large double doors, shutting them behind them. They could hear the sound of the keratinocytes colliding with the door outside. "Where are we?" Huerta asked aloud as he looked around the room in awe. It was large and ornately decorated. The shimmering lights and sparkling crystal windows shone brightly "We're in the Stratum Corneum. The topmost layer" Laquanda answered. "More then that. We're in the Throne Room" Jessyca added a bit nervously, "We have to get out of here before -" The shaking ground cut Jessyca off in mid-sentence. "Before what?" Echoed a monstrous voice coming from, of all places, the ceiling. They all looked up quickly. Hanging from a thick web was a giant keratinocyte. "It's her!" Jessyca whispered, her voice overflowing with fear. "Queen Chrysitna T, also known as Queen Gohma!" "Huerta!" Laquanda demanded, "You must fight her. You are the only one who can defeat her!" "Why me?" "There are stories about you, you're the chosen one sent from the heavens to rid us of the darkness. Only you can do it!" Huerta turned to see the giant spider-keratinocyte queen hovering above him laughing hysterically. "I can do this." He repeated over and over. He shut his eyes tight and when he opened them he was ready for battle. He longer wore the beat up old clothes he wore every other day, instead he was wearing a long green tunic, with brown tights and high brown hunting boots. On his head was green cap, one you might confuse with a sleeping cap. He reached for the sheath that was suddenly at his waist and pulled out the Kokiri sword ready for battle. His trusty sling-shot also ready at his waist. The monster attack and Huerta dodged. As Queen Chrystina turned searching for Huerta with her one giant eye Huerta pulled out his sling-shot and hit her eye dead center. Kokiri sword in hand he took one good slash at the injured keratinocyte queen and took her out."

"DUDE!" Laquanda cried out. "You did it!" Panting Huerta grinned at Laquanda and Jessyca, he turned back to the body of the keratinocyte queen as a small blue fairy rose from her body. Huerta approached it, a glass bottle in hand ready to catch it. Just as he uncorked the bottle the fairy it transformed into a gorgeous woman with long blue hair adorned with gold bands and ringlets hanging from the ends. Her skin itself had a bluish tint. She was dressed in a skimpy icy blue bikini. That was when Huerta noticed her claw like nails. This woman was beautiful, but obviously a force to be reckoned to with. As her feet touched the floor Huerta took in her height . . . or lack of it, she couldn't have been taller than 5 feet. She tossed her hair out her face before her hard gaze met Huerta's. It was a look that could freeze over Hell. Huerta took a step in both shock and fear. You would think that he would have learned that short women were the ones you really have to look out for. Behind him Laquanda dropped to one knee, "I have done all that you have asked, my lady, or should I say, Queen Haleigh" Haleigh's gaze turned to Laquanda's bowed head. "Yes you did quite well. I am very pleased" Laquanda rose to his feet and stepped to Haleigh's side, "What do we do with these two useless sacks of keratin?" Laquanda asked with an evil grin. "Dispose of them, they are not of any use to me" Haleigh replied with toss of her hand. "Dispose?" Huerta questioned quickly, "Laquanda, what is she talking about what's going on?" That's when it hit him, everything suddenly made sense, "You . . . The cut on your leg. . . You're disappearing . . . You're a keratinocyte!" "A bit slow aren't we? I was never on your side, I was never trying to get you out, you were just the only one who could take out the spider" "I should have known, how you always knew which way to go, someone living In the Stratum Basale would have never known all that stuff you knew" "And yet it took you until now to realize it" "Did you get shorter?" Jessyca asked out of the blue. "What?" Laquanda replied, "You look shorter." That's when Laquanda really look in his height loss, he was almost the same size as Haleigh . . . "What's going on?" He asked looking as his body in shock, "I'm turning into an Asian kerantinocyte" "Oh, did I forget to mention that? You traveling through the levels of the Epidermis means you're getting flatter, shorter. You being short, means you're practically useless to me . . . No, let me correct that, you are useless to me." "You promised me a share of your power!" Laquanda growled. "Did I? You must have misheard me, I would never promise my power, my right to rule, to a misshapen keratinocyte like you." Laquanda fell to knees as he was just about ready to charge at the new queen. "Well it looks like it's time for you to be shed." Haleigh said mockingly as she stood above Laquanda as he lay on the ground clutching his stomach in pain. She looked up just as the other two fell to their knees as well. "It looks like it's time for all of you to go." With a snap of her delicate hand big strong keratinocytes appeared and dragged the near lifeless bodies to the shedding site. "Bye now" Haleigh said laughing as she turned her back on the trio making her way through the grand throne room to her throne where she would rule for as long as she may.

Wednesday, April 2, 2008

AP Government Midterm Study Guide (Half Complete)

  • Senate: 100 Senators, two from each state
    • Must be 30; must be a resident of the state they are representing; must have been a U.S. resident for at least nine years; only 1/3 of the senate is up for reelection at a time
    • Senators were expected to represent the will and interest of those in power in a given state
    • 17th amendment says that the Senators will be elected by the people
  • Limits on the government include the restriction under the Articles: Central gov. has little power, cannot call a militia, cannot implement taxes without approval from the states
  • Filibuster: Delaying tactic used in the U.S. Senate by the minority in an effort to prevent the passage of a bill amendment
  • Thomas Paine called for an end to colonists' political wavering over British rule and prompted the idea of an American republic where free citizens were in control
  • .
  • The no Child Left Behind Act motivates states to lower standards to meet the requirements of the act, the focus of standardized testing encourages teaches to teach only a narrow subset of skills for the test, expectations are set lower and there in an increase in segregation by class and race and push low-performing students out of school, even schools doing well will want to do better and so push out low performing students


    Alfie Kohn says that that law is unredeemable and should be scrapped and its main effect sentences poor children to endless test-prep drills

  • Believed that "man is not by nature a social animal, society could not exist except by the power of the state" and believed that you give up your rights to the government in return for your life
  • Locke believed that we have the right to rebel if the government is infringing upon our rights and seeks absolute power
  • The weaknesses of the Articles include the central government's inability to call a militia forward, implement taxes without the consent from the states, unable to regulate commerce, economic rivalry between states was occurring that the central government couldn't doing anything about it, led to territorial conflicts and civil unrest
  • Miranda v. Arizona: The 5th Amendment privilege against self-incrimination requires law enforcement officials to advise a suspect interrogated in custody of his rights to remain silent and to obtain an attorney
  • Who has the powers to tax, borrow money, and define and punish criminals?
    • The Judicial branch of the government defines and punishes criminals as in the Supreme Court
  • McCulloch v. Maryland: Maryland tried to impose a tax on all note of the bank not charted in Maryland. Ruled that though the constitution does not specifically give Congress the power to establish a bank, it does delegate the ability to tax and spend, and a bank is a proper and suitable instrument to assist the operations of the government in the collection and disbursement of the revenue. Maryland had no power to interfere with the bank's operation by taxing it
  • Federalist Papers: They were written with the intention of recruiting more support for the constitution. They brought up the good points of the constitution and even spoke on the topics that anti-federalists worried about and told how the constitution made these topics not a problem
  • .
  • The first political party in the U.S. was the Democratic-Republican party which was created by Jefferson. They believed that the Congress should dominate the central government.
    • "Equal rights for all, special privileges for none"
    • Got the support from agricultural areas
    • Dominate the government form Jefferson's presidency to the civil war

    Federalist: Created by Hamilton and supported a strong central government. It dominated urban areas in the north

    The Democratic party came from the demo-repub.

    • Did not support a strong central government
    • National bank
    • Elitism
  • McCain-Feingold Act:


Tuesday, April 1, 2008

AP Government -Module Notes- Chap 6 Parts 1-4

Lesson 19: The Nature of a President 3/31/08 (35 minutes)

Section One - Qualifications and Qualities

  • 35+ years old, natural born US citizen, and living in the US for 14 years before they become president (does not have to be consecutive years, just total)
  • must satisfy three audiences
    • politicians
    • party activists
    • the public
  • has five main roles
    • head of state
    • chief executive
    • commander-in-chief
    • diplomat
    • legislator
  • Richard Neustadt: political science/historian who said that a president's most vital power is the ability to persuade
    • Harry Truman said he spent all of his time trying to get people to do what they were supposed to do in the first place
  • Clinton Rossiter: political scientist who said a president has to be able to multitask
  • James MacGregor Burns: presidential biographer who said presidents must have a clear, focused agenda that can be achieved during his term
  • James David Barber: political scientist who said presidents who have a clear agenda and purpose, are active, and have a positive perception of the position are more likely to be seen as strong leaders

Section Two - Rules and Contingencies

  • there are two ways to become president
    • election: must recieve a majority of votes in the Electoral College; most common method
    • succession: vice president gains presidential powers (but not title) if the president is unable to complete his term
      • VP John Tyler: In 1841 took title and presidential powers when President William Henry Harrison died; set precedent for succession
      • Twenty-fifth Amendment: made in 1967 it stated that if a president passes away, resigns, or is impeached by both houses of Congress, the vice president will become president. It also says that the vice president can assume presidential responsibilities if he and a majority of the Cabinet members concur that the president is incapacitated or if the president declares himself incapacitated (vice president and Cabinet members must send a written declaration to the Senate President Pro Tempore and the Speaker of the House to gain power. president must send a written declaration to the Senate President Pro Tempore and the Speaker of the House to regain his powers, but Congress can keep him from regaining his powers with a two-thirds vote if the majority of the cabinet do not think the president should regain his power)
      • Theodore Roosevelt, Calvin Coolidge, Harry Truman, Lyndon Johnson, and Gerald Ford have become president through succession in the twentieth century
      • Presidential Succession Act of 1947: if the vice president cannot fulfill role of president it goes to the the Speaker of the House, then the President Pro Tempore of the Senate, then the members of the cabinet until someone is able to fill the role
        • Gerald Ford took on role when Vice President Spiro Agnew resigned and then President Nixon resigned for his involvement in the Watergate scandal
      • vice presidents can also be succeeded, a new vice president is nominated by the president and then the nominee must be approved by Congress
  • impeachment: a way to remove a president from power. This includes filing formal charges against the president and conducting a trial, and requires a majority vote from the House followed by a two-thirds vote fromt the Senate
    • a president can be impeached for treason, bribery, or high crimes and misdemeanors
    • Andrew Johnson and Bill Clinton are the only presidents to be impeached (for both the House voted to impeach, Senate did not convict); Richard Nixon would have been impeached but he resigned first
  • president is paid a salary and an expense allowance set by Congress; president cannot accept gifts for fulfilling his office (to avoid bribery)
    • salary cannot change while he is in office (so Congress cannot control the president by increasing or decreasing salary)
    • salary changes based on inflation, but in 2004 was $400,000 with a $50,000 expense allowance. The president also has access to a Boeing 747 and a helicopter, is given Secret Service protection for himself and his family, has total health care, and receives a pension. President must pay income tax on both salary and expense allowance as he is a citizen.
  • term limit: president can only serve two four-year terms in office
    • precedent set by George Washington and continued by the first 31 presidents
    • Twenty-second Amendment: in 1951 the term limit was added to the Constitution following President  Franklin D. Roosevelt being elected four times
      • vice president who succeeds a president can serve up to 10 years if succession occurs toward the end of the presidential term







+Roles of the President: Commander-In-Chief, Chief Executive, Head of State, Chief Diplomat, and Legislator

+Commander-in-Chief: Article II, section 2; the president controls the military by working through the Department of Defense

+Established by the first Congress to advise the president on military matters

+Members of the Department of Defense include the secretary of defense (Also a cabinet members and the Joint Chiefs of Staff)

+Responsible for giving the president advice in his role as Commander-in-Chief

+President also works closely with the House and Senate committees on armed services and the appropriation committees that designate funding for the military

+Power of control over the military is shared with Congress

+Congress has the power of appropriations and to declare war

+Used this power in 1941 for WWII

+War Powers Resolution stipulates that a president must get Congressional approval if he wants to commit troops on an emergency basis

+President appeals to the public prompt Congress to give him powers to conduct war when he sees fit

+President also exercises power over military leaders to ensure that national security goals are met

+Chief Executive: Article II, Section 1 and 3; Champion of the U.S. Constitution

+Sworn to uphold and defend its laws and make sure that they are executed

+Administrator and Crisis Manager can be seen as extensions

+Admin: President is the head of an immense Bureaucracy, which includes the Cabinet, government agencies, commissions, and other entities

+Crisis Manager: President handles national crises

+Pres. is judged by the world and the nation on how well he handles these situations

+Head of State and Chief Diplomat: Article II, Section 3; Attends state dinners, acts as the ceremonial leader of the nation, and meets with foreign leaders/meeting with foreign diplomats, appointing ambassadors, and fulfilling obligations to negotiate treaties, agreements, and understandings with foreign powers

+Represents the U.S. at official functions, such as funerals or weddings of important foreign officials, treaty signings, and goodwill trips abroad

+Pres can enter into executive agreements which do NOT require the senate's approval

+Expand existing legislation or treaties

+Legislature: Article II Section, 3; the president must present to Congress a State of the Union message each year


+Having so many roles limits the president's time

+They are usually so busy that they react to crisis situations as they occur

+The demands on his time usually requires the pres to set aside his Agenda, limiting his time for promoting his policies




+Pres is the national head of his political party

+Role carries special privileges and responsibilities

+Privileges: Having a heavy influence on the party's platform, choosing party leaders at the national committee level, and becoming the goodwill ambassador for the party by building relationships with states and local party leaders

+Enjoys an unchallenged bid for the second term

+Responsabilities: Making speeches on his party's behalf, traveling around the U.S> to help state and local party affiliates raise money, and campaigning in off-year elections

+Presidential coattails







Executive Offices and Staff

-Main executive offices are located in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building (Next door to the white house)

-Offices are runned by official appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate

-Three main offices:

-Office of Management and Budget: Helps the president draft proposed budget for Congress by reviewing legislation, regulations, and proposed budgets

-National Security Council: Created in response to intelligence lapses during WWII as an effort to better coordinate intelligence gathering

-Oversees American foreign policy and security issues, helps the president manage crisis, and makes sure national security policies and implemented

-Council of Economic Advisors: Helps the president develop an economic plan for the nation

-Creates the economic report of the President

-Also houses the office of the United States Trade Representative: Negotiates trade with foreign powers and create implements and trade policies

-President's staff is located in the West Wing of the White House

-The president appoints staff members and they do not require congressional confirmation

-Chief of Staff: Highest ranking member of the white House staff

-Maybe be very powerful and firmly control the White House or may just be one of the president's advisors and have a less powerful role

-Staff is divided into a number of specific functions that help the president organize and manage the executive branch

-Ex: Political advisors: Speech writers, ect.

-Ex: Policy officers: Advisors to the presidents for specific policy issues (National security council and Council of economic Advisors)

-Appointed by the president and do not require Senate confirmation

-Ex: Support staff: Secretarial staff, kitchen personnel, ect.



Presidential Management Models:

-Political scientists have examined several models or how the presidents run the White House and control administrations

-Pyramid Model: Based on a strict military-like chain of command that emphasizes a powerful Chief-of-Staff

-President is on top of the pyramid with the Chief of Staff running the White House staff with a great deal of authority and acts as a clearing house for information and access to the president

-Advantages: receives information through the Chief of Staff and is not burdened with the details of running their white House

-Disadvantages: President may not get all of the information he might need

-Chief of Staff could neglect to of choose not to send on information to the president

-Hub-and-Spoke Model: Can be visualized as a circular structure

-Based on the New Deal White House system of management

-Has the president playing a dominant role in the everyday happenings in the White House

-Chief of Staff has diminished power and importance and is usually less well known to the public

-Demands that the president have very strong leadership skills and an eye for detail

-Advantage: President directly controls his administration

-Disadvantage: President can loose sight of the "forest for the trees"

-Too many sources for one person to act upon

-Ad Hoc Structure: Combines leadership and management tactics that the CEO of

a large corporation might use

-Circular Structure: Staff and advisors report directly to the Oval Office






Approval Ratings and Public Perception:

-New president have high approval ratings for the first 100 days

-because the electorate expected that the new pres will address the problems of the nation with vigor and carry out promises made during the campaign

-During this time the pres can honestly say that he has the mandate of the people since they have just elected him to office

-exceptions to this theory occur when a president is elected president even though he did not receive the popular vote

-Mandate Theory: Does not work in this case

-President tries to gauge the publics response to his policies and proposals

-They turn to approval polls: Private polling organizations regularly conduct

-Media also tracks the presidents approval ratings and reports it to the people

-Polls help the president to shape policy, the media to spot problems in the new administration, and the people to make judgments about the president

-Presidents are no longer automatically granted concessions from Congress during their first 1100 days in office

-They no can expect to have to negotiate to the their legislative agenda positively considered by Congress

-A strong economy nearly always leads to high approval ratings

-Low taxes and inflation, high employment rates, steady cost of living, absence of recession and a strong stock market are all elements the encourage a positive view of the president

-National Crisis can raise a presidents rating if he handles it well

-Americans traditionally "rally around the flag" and support the president in emergency

-Foreign travel can boost a president's popularity because a trip abroad and also trigger a "rally around the flag" effect

-Americans feel a sense of pride when they see foreign crowds cheering for a US president and are angry when foreign nationals demonstrate against their Commander-in-Chief

-Foreign difficulties can address a president's public approval as well

-Failure in foreign policy can cause the public to extend disapproval to a president's policies in general

-Scandal can dampen public enthusiasm for a president

-Perception that the president is unable to fulfill campaign promises can damage his approval rating

-During the heat of campaign politicians can often make lofty pledges that are difficult to keep even in ideal situations

-Prolonged war or overseas conflict that has no foreseeable end can damage a president's approval rating

-People will give high approval at the start, it will drop