Newest Assignments and Dates (If assignment is online it shall be stated below)

  • 03-17-2008 - 03-21-2008 -Spring Break (FREEDOM)
  • 03-21-2008 -Art History Outline and images
  • Still during spring break: Read Lord of the Flies for techniques/devices, 3 allusions due.

Tuesday, November 13, 2007

Physiology -Chap 7- Outline


Chapter 7 : The Skeletal System

  • Divisions

    • Axial: Consists of bones that lie around the longitudinal axial of the body.

      Includes: Skull, Hyoid, Auditory Ossicles, Vertebral Column, and the Thorax

    • Appendicular: Consists of the bones that make up the upper and lower limbs and the girdles that connect the limbs to the axial

      Includes: Pectoral, Upper Limbs, Pelvic Girdle, and the Lower Lombs

    • Girdles: Connect limbs to axial skeleton

  • Types of Bones

    • Long: Greater length than width, slightly curved for strength

      • Consists of shaft and a variable number of extremities
      • Mostly compact bone in shaft, spongy at ends
    • Short: Somewhat cube shaped, width and length almost equal

      • Almost all spongy except at surface
    • Flat: Thin

      • Consists of two nearly parallel plates of compact bone tissue enclosing spongy bone tissue
    • Irregular: Complex shapes

      • Vary in amount of spongy and compact bone preasent
    • Sesamoid:Only a few millimeters in diameter

Bone Surface Markings

  • Depressions: Forms joints or allow the passage of soft tissue

Processes: Projections or outgrowths that either help form joints or serve as attachment points for connective tissue

* Know the table 7.2 *

  • cleft palate
  • cleft lip


  • Function: Protects brain, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves through the attachment of their inner surfaces

    Also provide attachment for some muscles that produce facial expressions

  • Number of Bones Total:

    • Cranial: Form the cranial cavity which encloses and protects the brain
    • Facial: Forms the face

Vertebral Column


Total number: Cervical





Intervertebral discs:

Characteristics of a Typical Vertebrae-


Vertebral arch-


  • transverse-
  • spinous-


  • inferior

    2. superior

Cervical Vertebrae:


Special characteristics:

Special movements:

Thoracic Vertebrae


Special characteristics:

Special movements:

Lumbar Vertebrae


Special characteristics:

Special movements:



Special characteristics:

Special movements:



Special characteristics:

Special movements:


Divisions of the Skeletal System

  • The bones of adults are grouped into two main categories:

    • Axial
    • Appendicular
  • The girdle connect the limbs of the appendicular to the axial bones

    Note: Functionally the ossicles in the ear are not a part of the axial, but are included for convenience

    Types of Bones

  • All bones can be classified into five main types based on shape

    • Long: Curved for strength

      • Curve absorbs the stress of the bodies weight at several different points (like an arch)
      • If bones were straight the weight would not be even distributed and would be more easily fracture
    • Short
    • Flat: Afford more protection and provide extensive areas for muscle attachment
    • Irregular: Cannot be grouped into any other areas
    • Sesamoid: Develop in certain tendons where there is considerable friction, tension, and physical stress

      • Vary in number from person to person
      • Not completely ossified
      • Protect tendons from excessive wear and tear
      • Often change the direction of pull of a tendon, improve mechanical advantage at a joint
  • There is one other type of bone that is classified by location rather than shape

    • Sutural bone

      • Small bones located in sutures (immovable joints) between cranial bones

    Bone Surface Markings

  • Bones have surface markings: structural features adapted for specific functions

    • Most not present at birth, but tension causes them
  • Two major types of surface markings

    • Depressions and openings
    • Processes


  • Has 22 bones
  • Rests of superior end of the vertebral column
  • The bones of the skull are grouped into two categories:

    • Cranial bones:

      • Frontal bone, two parietal bones, two temporal bones, the occipital bone, and sphenoid bone, and the ethmoid bone
    • Facial bones:

      • Two nasal bones, two maxillae, two zygomatic bones, the mindible, two lacrimal bones, two palatine bones, two inferior nasal conache, and the vomer

    General Features and Function

  • Also forms smaller cranial cavities
  • Certain skull bones contain cavities called paranasal sinuses that are linked with mucous membranes and open into the nasal cavity
  • Other than the auditory ossicles the mandible is the only movable bone of the skull

    Cranial Bones

    Frontal Bone

  • Frontal bone

    • Forms forehead, roof of orbits, ad most of the anterior part of the cranial floor

Art History –Study Guide- Chap 6

Interpretation and Meaning:

  • What is the significance of the forum?

    The Forum was where all governmental issue were taken care of by the senate

  • Identify some examples of the architecture of the provinces, and what do these monuments tell us about the Romans?

    The coliseum, the Pantheon, baths, and temples

    They show the abilities of the Romans and their knowledge and understanding of architecture

  • The Ara Pacis commemorates August' triumphal return to Rome after establishing Roman rule in Gaul

    Used swags and garlands of flowers

  • The decorations was simply a decretive allegory for the ceremonies
  • Augustus Primaporta idealizes a specific ruler and prowess and uses mythological imagery
  • The painting of the Villa of Mysteries in Pompeii depicts the coming of age and the rights of passage young women had to go through at the time
  • The Flavian Amphitheater is called the Coliseum because it was derived from a statue of Nero, the Colossus, standing next to it.
  • The succession of orders of he engaged columns at the Coliseum refers to the traditional order from the Hellenistic period
  • The Arch of Titus was made by the senate and the roman people in honor of Titus
  • The Column of Trajan involved 2,500 individual figures linked by landscape architecture and recurring figures of Trajan
  • Emperor Trajan is portrayed as a powerful leader in imperial propaganda.

    He had a temple name for him: The Temple of the Divine Trajan

  • The word 'Pantheon' litterly means 'all gods' and the patron who commissioned it was Hadirum between 125-128 BC
  • The most remarkable characteristics of the Pantheon include the giant rotunda, the 20 feet thick walls, and the dome
  • In the seven niches in the interior of the Pantheon statues of the gods were displayed
  • Portrait statues such as Allus Metellus were located at the top of columns as memorials
  • The room in the Villa of Mysteries is thought to have been an room dedicated to the rite of passage marking psychological advancement
  • The Colosseum was used as an entertainment center for activities such as athletic events, mock sea battles, and fights. The Colosseum could hold up to 55,000 spectators
  • The two types of vaulting in the Colosseum: groin and barrel; were used for entrances and to maximize space.
  • The Basilica Ulpia was located within the Forum of Trajan and after its building the Forums moved to within here. It was dedicated to justice, commerce, and the presence of the emperor.
  • .
  • Mosaics were located on floors and the illusionistic effects artists got from them were amazing. They used very small tesserae and a wide range of colors.


  • Four styles of Roman wall painting:
    • First style: Involved geometric patterns, wall often painted to imitate marble
    • Second style: Theatrical settings, created illusion of space, often included interconnected scenes that told a story
    • Third style: Moved away from architectural illusions and turned to surface effects, natural settings favored, ornate, decoration serves to frame smaller works
    • Forth style: Eccentric designed, includes a revival of the Second Style, told stories, very ornate
  • Portraiture that emerge during the Roman period include portraits of the dead to preserve them. Images were made into death masks, busts, and paintings. They were extremely realistic and accurate

Materials and Techniques

  • The Romans relied on concrete to construct their large round arched barrel vaulted buildings. Concrete was stronger and therefore allowed the Romans to build bigger, taller, and stronger buildings
  • Roman concrete consisted of rocks, water, and pozzola, a type of volcanic ash
  • Veneer means is a thin layer of a finer material over the materials the object is made from and it was important because it allows for a piece to be built from a strong material, but get the beauty from a finer one
  • The technique Roman wall painting used was_____
  • The sculptors created a sense of space in the relief sculptures on the Arch of Titus using both high and low relief
  • .
  • The pieces of glass used to create mosaics are called tesserae


  • -

    (insert picture here)

  • Basilica of Old Saint Rome

    (insert picture here)

Compare and Discuss

  • The Ertrustcans took the traditional Doric Greek order and changed it to be their own by adding a base and taking away the traditional Greek fluting.
  • Etruscan tombs are much more homey. In Egypt, the tombs are filled with lavish gifts for the dead for the afterlife. Etruscan tombs recreate the homes of the dead, the walls covered in low relief sculpting.
  • The barrel vault is the simplest of the arches the Romans/Etruscans used. The groin vault is the meeting of two barrel vaults. The groin vault provides more space than the barrel. The Colosseum contains both barrel and groin vaulting.
  • A pier is the support for an arch or bridge and the column is a vertical, slender compression member. It is used to hold up ceilings and is not associated with arches
  • The relief on the Ara Pacis commemorates the first rulers of Rome: Romulus and Pompilius. The frieze that runs along the inner walls of the Parthenon depict the Panathenaic Festival, an annual tribute to Athena. The relief on the Parthenon and higher and creates a better sense of space compared to the Ara Pacis. The people on the Parthenon are seen in more movement compared to those on the Ara Pacis

Sunday, November 11, 2007

Econ Unit 3 Study Guide

Study Guide: Unit 3

1. Consumption Schedule

a. What is it?

Consumption Schedule: A schedule showing the amounts households plan to spend for consumer goods at different levels of disposable income.

B. What will cause it to shift?

Schedule Shifts: changes in wealth, expectations, interest rates, and household debt will shift the consumption schedule in one direction and the saving schedule in the opposite direction

~A tax increase shifts both schedules downward, and vice versa

C. Know when the consumption schedule is at equilibrium.

45° Line: a reference line; each point on it is equidistant from the two axes

C = DI

(consumption equals disposable income)

2. Investment Demand Curve

A. What is it?

Investment Demand Curve: shows the amount of investment forthcoming at each real interest rate; the level of investment depends on the expected rate of return and the real interest rate

B. What will cause it to shift?

Expected Rate of Return on Investment:

~Acquisition, Maintenance, and Operating Costs

~Business Taxes

~Technological Change

~Stock of Capital Goods on Hand

3. MPC & MPS

A. What are they?

Marginal Propensity to Consume (MPC): the fraction of any change in income consumed

Marginal Propensity to Save (MPC): the fraction of any change in income saved

B. Be able to find someone's MPS & MPC if I tell you their new income and spending habits

MPC = change in consumption

change in income

MPS = change in saving

change in income

MPC + MPS = 1

4. Multiplier

A. Be able to determine the total change in spending if given the initial change in spending.

Multiplier = change in real GDP

initial change in spending

Change in GDP = multiplier X initial change in spending

B. Know the 3 ways to calculate the multiplier

Multiplier = 1/(1-MPC) = 1/(APC - 1) = change in real GDP/ initial change in spending

5. Aggregate Supply and Aggregate Demand

A. What are the determinants of each?

Determinants of Aggregate Supply

1.) Change in input prices

~Domestic resource prices

~Prices of imported resources

~Market Power

2.) Change in Productivity

3.) Change in legal-institutional environment

~Business taxes and subsidies

~Government regulations

Determinants of Aggregate Demand

1.) Change in Consumer Spending

~Consumer wealth

~Consumer expectations

~Household indebtedness


2.) Change in Investment Spending

~Interest Rates

~Expected Returns

-Expected future business conditions


-Degree of excess capacity

-Business taxes

3.) Change in Government Spending

4.) Change in Net Export Spending

~National income abroad

~Exchange rates

B. When they shift, what happens to the price level and Q of GDP?

Aggregate Demand Curve: is downward sloping; inverse relationship between price level and the quantity demanded of Real GDP

~As price level rises, the quantity of Real GDP falls and vice versa

~Slopes downward because of:

-Wealth Effect: an increase in the price level decreases purchasing power (and vice versa)

-Interest-Rate Effect: an increase in price level increases the demand for money, thus increasing interest rates and reducing expenditures (and vice versa)

-Foreign Purchases Effect: an increase in the U.S. price level will reduce U.S. exports and increase U.S. imports (and vice versa)

Aggregate Supply Curve: up sloping; indicates a direct relationship between the price level and the amount of real output that firms will offer for sale

~As price level rises, so does GDP and vice versa

i. Because of this change in GDP, what happened to the employment level?

Aggregate Supply: a decrease in aggregate supply means a decrease in employment (and vice versa)

Aggregate Demand: an increase in demand means an increase in employment (and vice versa)

C. Know the SRAS and LRAS.

i. Why is the LRAS vertical?

In the long run, wages and other input prices rise and fall to match changes in the price level

~Price-level changes do not affect firms' profits and thus they create no incentive for firms to alter their output

ii. Understand the effect that an eventual increase in wages has on the AD, LRAS, and SRAS equilibrium

Aggregate Demand: an increase in wages will increase demand

Short Run Aggregate Supply: an increase in wages will increase supply

Long Run Aggregate Supply: no effect; wages match changes in the price level

D. Know how changes in the LRAS is similar to shifts in the PPC

The LRAS can only shift to the right if more resources are found or new technology invented, the PPC is the alternative combinations of two goods that an economy can produce with existing resources and technology in a given time period

6. Fiscal Policy

A. What are the different types (discretionary and non-discretionary/ contractionary and expansionary?) Know what they are and be able to identify examples of each.

Discretionary Fiscal Policy: policy in which the government has to take action for it to be implemented

Non-Discretionary Fiscal Policy: automatic stabilizers in the economy

~Progressive Tax: the more you make the larger percentage of your income you pay in taxes

Contractionary Fiscal Policy: causes a budget surplus

~The government has decreased spending and started taking in more money in tax revenues so the government has a surplus

Expansionary Fiscal Policy: causes a budget deficit

~The government is spending more but not taking in extra money in tax revenues so the government has a deficit

B. What type of fiscal policy should be implemented to eliminate an inflationary or recessionary gap?

Recessionary Gap: expansionary fiscal policy

Inflationary Gap: contractionary fiscal policy

7. Crowding out Effect

A. What is it?

Crowding-out Effect: a rise in interest rates and a resulting decrease in planned investment

B. What causes it?

Caused by the Federal government's increased borrowing in the money market

8. Basic Classical economic theory

Value Theory

~Labor Theory of Value: natural prices were the sum of natural rates of wages, profits (including interest on capital and wages of superintendence) and rent

~Price Determinants:

-The level of outputs at the level of Smith's "effectual demand"



*Stressed the benefits of trade


Monetary Theory

~Monetarists and the currency school argued that banks can and should control the supply of money

-Theory: inflation is caused by banks issuing an excessive supply of money

~Theory of Endogenous Money: the supply of money automatically adjusts to the demand, and banks can only control the terms (e.g., the rate of interest) on which loans are made

9. The Phillips Curve

A. Know the relationship between inflation and unemployment on the SR Phillips curve

SR Phillips Curve: when the actual rate of inflation is higher than expected, profits temporarily rise and the unemployment rate temporarily falls