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Tuesday, November 13, 2007

Physiology -Chap 7- Outline


Chapter 7 : The Skeletal System

  • Divisions

    • Axial: Consists of bones that lie around the longitudinal axial of the body.

      Includes: Skull, Hyoid, Auditory Ossicles, Vertebral Column, and the Thorax

    • Appendicular: Consists of the bones that make up the upper and lower limbs and the girdles that connect the limbs to the axial

      Includes: Pectoral, Upper Limbs, Pelvic Girdle, and the Lower Lombs

    • Girdles: Connect limbs to axial skeleton

  • Types of Bones

    • Long: Greater length than width, slightly curved for strength

      • Consists of shaft and a variable number of extremities
      • Mostly compact bone in shaft, spongy at ends
    • Short: Somewhat cube shaped, width and length almost equal

      • Almost all spongy except at surface
    • Flat: Thin

      • Consists of two nearly parallel plates of compact bone tissue enclosing spongy bone tissue
    • Irregular: Complex shapes

      • Vary in amount of spongy and compact bone preasent
    • Sesamoid:Only a few millimeters in diameter

Bone Surface Markings

  • Depressions: Forms joints or allow the passage of soft tissue

Processes: Projections or outgrowths that either help form joints or serve as attachment points for connective tissue

* Know the table 7.2 *

  • cleft palate
  • cleft lip


  • Function: Protects brain, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves through the attachment of their inner surfaces

    Also provide attachment for some muscles that produce facial expressions

  • Number of Bones Total:

    • Cranial: Form the cranial cavity which encloses and protects the brain
    • Facial: Forms the face

Vertebral Column


Total number: Cervical





Intervertebral discs:

Characteristics of a Typical Vertebrae-


Vertebral arch-


  • transverse-
  • spinous-


  • inferior

    2. superior

Cervical Vertebrae:


Special characteristics:

Special movements:

Thoracic Vertebrae


Special characteristics:

Special movements:

Lumbar Vertebrae


Special characteristics:

Special movements:



Special characteristics:

Special movements:



Special characteristics:

Special movements:


Divisions of the Skeletal System

  • The bones of adults are grouped into two main categories:

    • Axial
    • Appendicular
  • The girdle connect the limbs of the appendicular to the axial bones

    Note: Functionally the ossicles in the ear are not a part of the axial, but are included for convenience

    Types of Bones

  • All bones can be classified into five main types based on shape

    • Long: Curved for strength

      • Curve absorbs the stress of the bodies weight at several different points (like an arch)
      • If bones were straight the weight would not be even distributed and would be more easily fracture
    • Short
    • Flat: Afford more protection and provide extensive areas for muscle attachment
    • Irregular: Cannot be grouped into any other areas
    • Sesamoid: Develop in certain tendons where there is considerable friction, tension, and physical stress

      • Vary in number from person to person
      • Not completely ossified
      • Protect tendons from excessive wear and tear
      • Often change the direction of pull of a tendon, improve mechanical advantage at a joint
  • There is one other type of bone that is classified by location rather than shape

    • Sutural bone

      • Small bones located in sutures (immovable joints) between cranial bones

    Bone Surface Markings

  • Bones have surface markings: structural features adapted for specific functions

    • Most not present at birth, but tension causes them
  • Two major types of surface markings

    • Depressions and openings
    • Processes


  • Has 22 bones
  • Rests of superior end of the vertebral column
  • The bones of the skull are grouped into two categories:

    • Cranial bones:

      • Frontal bone, two parietal bones, two temporal bones, the occipital bone, and sphenoid bone, and the ethmoid bone
    • Facial bones:

      • Two nasal bones, two maxillae, two zygomatic bones, the mindible, two lacrimal bones, two palatine bones, two inferior nasal conache, and the vomer

    General Features and Function

  • Also forms smaller cranial cavities
  • Certain skull bones contain cavities called paranasal sinuses that are linked with mucous membranes and open into the nasal cavity
  • Other than the auditory ossicles the mandible is the only movable bone of the skull

    Cranial Bones

    Frontal Bone

  • Frontal bone

    • Forms forehead, roof of orbits, ad most of the anterior part of the cranial floor

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