Newest Assignments and Dates (If assignment is online it shall be stated below)

  • 03-17-2008 - 03-21-2008 -Spring Break (FREEDOM)
  • 03-21-2008 -Art History Outline and images
  • Still during spring break: Read Lord of the Flies for techniques/devices, 3 allusions due.

Thursday, February 28, 2008



  • Study of the characteristics of the human population: Demography
    • Shows what motivates various groups to become active on certain issues and why some groups are more likely to show up on election day
    • Categories:
      • Age: Under 25 -Low turn out rate
      • Gender: Men once dominant, but with women voting rights this is changing
      • Race: More white people vote than any other to vote
      • Education: Highly educated are more likely to participate in politics; high school drop outs show the lowest records
      • Income Level: Higher level are more active, blue collar works participate more than white collar or unemployed workers


  • Chances of voting: Voter Intensity:
    • Higher:
      • Strong feelings about voting
      • Person stake
      • Interest in hot issue
      • Feel connected to political system
    • Lower:
      • Vote make a difference
      • Not compelled
      • No interest
      • No knowledge of candidates or issues
    • Related to Political Efficacy:
      • Internal:
        • Refers to how well people understand the system or get involved or stand on the political sidelines
        • People who have strong understand of issues and candidates
      • External:
        • Whether people believe if their efforts have a difference
        • If they think they can make a difference they have High External Efficacy
    • Issue Saliency:
      • Whether they believe issues make a difference in their lives
    • Consensus: Large amount of voters have the same opinion on topic; causes people to become apathetic and do not think their vote will make a difference
    • Polarization: Highly divided nation causes people to become more opinionated and will become more active to make sure that their vote and thoughts are heard

Wednesday, February 27, 2008

Government-Chap 4-Module 2

Part 1:

Functions of Parties in America:

  • Political party: Group of people who try to influence the government by getting their candidate elected
    • Repub. and Demo. have dominated
      • They are distinguished by their political ideologies
    • Four functions:
      • Crate a rally point for diverse groups that share economical, social, or political concerns
      • Simplify the voting process for the electorate:
        • Limit the number of those who can run by sponsoring only the ones they think best suited
      • Generate excitement about an election:
        • Organize rallies, parades, conventions, ect. to get a voters attentions.
      • Originizing the government:
        • State and federal legislatures are centered on the parties due to the fact that they had to become affiliated with the parties to become elected
        • Some affiliations have led to partnerships, which mean the office holder will base their decisions on the parties interest
      • Accountability: People hold their political parties responsible for making sure officeholders fulfill promises

Part 2:

Organization of Parties:

  • Organized like the federal government
    • Has offices at the national, state and local levels
    • National Committee:
      • Haded by national chairperson
      • Guides party between elections and promotes the party throughout states
      • Organizes the party's national convention:
        • Meets during election years to formalize the nomination of a presidential candidate
      • Maintains influence at the national level through congressional campaign committees and the party members in office
    • State Committee:
      • Does many of the same things as the national committee
      • Solidifies party. finds new candidates, and raises campaign funds
      • State committees become very active during election years
      • They host fund raisers and circulate literature about issues and party agenda
      • Help orginize primary elections
      • Between the election years, they disappear and become concerned with state and national legislatures
      • They act as special interest groups and lobbyists
    • Local Committees:
      • Centered on state districts or precincts
      • Have a chair person ho works towards getting people to vote by sponsoring registration drives, recruiting new people, and finding local candidates
  • Some committees became political machines during the 1800s and into the 1900s
    • Dominated party activities at their respective levels
    • Demo. were successful in recruiting immigrants by helping them to get established upon entering the country
    • Using these modes of operations, the parties functioned largely as welfare organization, they controlled elections though corrupt means
    • Political machines still exist today, thought not at the same level
    • The corruption has disappeared thanks to voter registration requirements and competitive bidding laws
  • Within the Party:
    • Many people are rank-and-fill members: only purpose is to vote
    • Political regulars: those who take an active role in politics such as working at the polls, taking non-leadership party roles, contributing money, and voting among party lines.
      • Tend to compromise on issues and are concerned with winning the election
    • Party Activists: Deeply concerned about party functions and become highly involved in the electoral process
      • Donates funds, demand a voice in the agendas, and have a strong belief in their part's ideology
    • Party Purists: tend to be ideologues
      • Put issues ahead of winning elections and withhold support from candidates who do not share their stance on issue
Ideologue: Individual with strong philosophical or ideological leanings. Generally unwilling to budge to compromise or work with others with differing views.
Local Committee: A committee within a political party, it is centered on state districts or precincts. These committees have a chairperson and work toward getting people to vote by sponsoring registration drives, recruiting new party members, and finding local candidates.
National Chairperson: One of the institutions that keeps the party operating between conventions. The national chairperson is responsible for the day-to-day activities of the party and is usually hand-picked by the presidential nominee.
State Committees: Committees within a political party that work to solidify the party, find new candidates for state office, and raise campaign funds. Every state has its own party committees, and the chairpersons of the state committees typically act on behalf of people already in office, such as senators or governors.
Rank-and-Fill: Political party members whose main participation in politics is usually voting in primary and general elections. These members tend to vote straight party tickets in elections and follow the leads of local party officials.
Primary Elections: Election held to select the candidates for an upcoming general election.
Political Machines: A type of political party organization that relies heavily on material inducements, such as patronage, to win votes and to govern.
Political Ideology: A coherent set of beliefs about politics, public policy, and public purpose. It helps give meaning to political events, personalities, and policies.
Party Regulars: Political party members who typically work at polls, take lesser party roles, contribute money to campaigns, and vote along party lines. These members tend to compromise on important issues, and they are mostly concerned with winning elections.
Party Purists: Political party members with the highest level of political involvement. These members put issues ahead of winning elections, withhold support from candidates who do not share their stance on issues, and are usually very active in special interest groups. If purists feel like a party ignores their concerns, they often break away and form a third party.
Party Activists: Political party members who are deeply concerned about party functions and highly involved in the electoral process. These members donate funds, demand a voice in party agendas, and have a strong belief in their party’s ideology.
Partnerships: Strong party affiliations that result in officeholders basing their decisions on the party’s interests.
National Convention:The meeting of party delegates every four years to choose a presidential ticket and write the party’s platform.
National Committee: One of the institutions that keeps the party operating between conventions. The national committee is composed of representatives from the states and territories.

Tuesday, February 26, 2008

Government-Chap 4-Module 1

Part 1:

Political Party Eras

  • Different political parties
    • The first political parties:
      • Democratic-Republican:
        • Create by Jefferson
        • Congress should dominate the central government
        • "Equal rights for all, special privileges for none
        • Got support from agricultural areas
        • Dominated the government from Jefferson's presidency to the civil war
      • Federalist:
        • Create by Hamilton
        • Strong federal government
        • Dominated urban areas in the north
      • Democratic party:
        • Came from th democratic republican
        • Jackson was one
        • No strong central government
        • National bank
        • Elitism
      • Whig:
        • Led by Webster and Cly
        • Supported by eastern planters
        • Defends constitutional federal authority and high protective tariff
        • Disappeared after a while
      • Republican:
        • Lincoln: Marked the start of main power until great depression
      • Progressive:
        • 1900's
        • stock market crashes and great depression led to America realigning parties
        • Strong view on finding depression solutions
          • Republicans thought to let it fix itself
          • Reunited the North and South democrats
            • Led by Roosevelt
            • Democrats held power until 1968
  • Now only the Democratic and Republican parties have the main support o the country and government

Part 2:
-Always two parties dominate
~Occasionally a third comes up
~Founded by single issue or extreme ideology or from splintering off main parties
~ The strongest third parties have an innovative platform, new ideas, can get issues that get accepted by the major parties
~Limited by design of electoral college
~everywhere but Kentucky and Maine the candidate with popular vote gets all electoral votes
~Requires cash to funding
Eligibility for Federal Subsidies:
~Party has to be on ballot
~5% of all votes into last election
~Can effect voting by getting votes away from candidates, leaving the road open for others


Democratic-Republican party: 1776-1824, members supported legislation that helped the common man and were proponents of strong state governments
Democratic Party: Originated from the Demo-Repub. party. Jackson was an early party leader and changed the name of the party
Federalist Party: 1796-1824; members were wealthy men. Supported a strong central government. Hamilton was a strong supporter
Political party: Anthony Downs "A team of men seeking to control the government apparatus by gaining office in a duly constituted election
Progressive Party: Formed during the 1900s. Factions of major parties that were opposed to extreme conservatism and concentrated on making America a more democratic society.
Republican Party: Major political party. Formed curing 19503. Original members were former Whigs.
Whig Party: 1828-1856; led by Daniel Webster and Henry lay were leaders. Members were opposed to Jaksonian democracy and dedicated to defending federal authority. Slavery split the party in half
Third Parties: Electoral contenders other than the two major parties. Third parties can influence elections, thought the rarely win

Monday, February 25, 2008

Art History-Chap. 17 vocab

Martyrium: Round shrine to a martyred saint.
Greek cross plan: A truly central plan church, a dome covered the central part
Composite capitol: A Corinthian column with added ionic volutes
Trompe l'oeil: "fool-the-eye", the use of linear perspective to make things look realistic
Intarsia: Wood inlay
Undercut: To cut under to create shadows and increase the illusion of 3-D
Fresco: Mural painting on wet plaster
Aedicula: a framed niche
Sinopia: sketch made on the wall before painters began to work
Seraphim: angels of the highest rank
Stigmata: The miraculous appearance of Christ's wounds on the saints body.

Sunday, February 24, 2008

Government-Chapter 3-PowerPoint Notes

Government-Chapter 3-PowerPoint Notes

  • Federalism:
    • Constitutional division of power between the national government and state governments
    • Power comes from Constitution
    • Local government units can make decisions regarding some government activities
  • Reasons:
    • Unitary system was unwanted (Too much like British rule, fears of strong governments)
    • Confederate system was unwanted (Too much like the Articles)
    • Allows unity, but not uniformity (Differences are a plus)
    • More suitable for geographically large nations (Differences are a plus)
    • More suitable for heterogeneous people (Differences are a plus)
    • More likely to check tyranny
    • Frees national government to concentrate on national matters
    • Frees states from excessive intrusion on strictly state/local matters
    • Encourages experimentation
      • Some states adopting laws, other states may follow
  • Pluses:
    • Keeps government closer to people, more opportunities to participate
    • Contributes to government strength, political flexibility, and fosters individual liberty, and the development of leaders
  • Minuses:
    • Block progress on protects powerful local interests
  • Defining Federalism:





  • Central government
  • Holds primary authority
  • Regulates activities of states
  • Limited powers to coordinate state activities
  • Shares power with states
  • States Government
  • Little or no power
  • Duties regulated by central government
  • Sovereign
  • Allocate some duties to central government
  • Shares power with central government
  • Citizens
  • Vote for central government official
  • Vote for state government officials
  • Vote for both state and central government officials
  • Historical Developments:
    • Duel Federalism {Layer cake}
      • State and national governments remained supreme rulers of their own little world
      • They don't share power or policy assignments
      • Narrow interpretation of national government powers
    • Cooperative Federalism {Marble Cake}
      • Mingling of responsibilities between state and national government
      • Sharing of powers and policy assignments (sharing is caring)
      • Broad interpretation of national government powers
    • New Federalism:
      • Shifting some authority back to states
      • Example: Block grants
        • Unfunded Mandate Reform Act of 1995
      • Supreme Court actions consistent with devolution of authority back to states
      • Evolution towards greater federal control throughout most of the 20th century
  • Federal Aid and Control
    • Conditions of aid:
      • Tell states what they must do for the money
    • Mandates:
      • Federal rules that states or localities must obey
  • Constitutional Basis of Federalism
    • National Powers-Delegated
      • Expressed powers - Stated
      • Implied powers -Suggested
      • Inherent powers -Not stated, but upheld
    • State Powers-Reserved
      • Amendment 10
        • Examples: Establishing voting requirements, running elections …
    • Concurrent Powers-Held by nation and states
      • Granted to congress, but not denied by Constitution or courts to the states
      • Questions are decided by courts
    • National supremacy: National government supreme in case of conflict
  • Increasing National Power
    • Gibbons v. Ogden: Court defined commerce broadly to include all "intercourse" between states
    • Heart of Atlanta Motel v. US: Court upheld the Civil Rights Act of 1964 using the Commerce Clause
  • What is Left of State Power:
    • Lope Case:
      • Supreme Court limited national government legislative reach in a case involving guns near or in schools
  • Intergovernmental Relations Today:
    • Fiscal Federalism: The pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal system
      • Cornerstone of the national government's relations with state and local governments
      • Grant System: Distributing the Federal Pie
        • Categorical Grants: Federal grants that can be used for specific purposes
          • Project Grants: Based on merit
          • Formula Grants: Amount varies based on formulas
        • Block Grants: Federal grants given more or less automatically to support broad programs
        • Grants are given to states and local governments
        • The scramble for Federal Dollars:
          • $400 billion in grants given every year
          • Universalism-little for everyone
        • The Mandate Blues:
          • Forces states to comply with federal rules under the threat of penalties or as a condition of receipt of a federal grant

Art History-Chap 17-Images.2

Nani di Banco, Four Crowned Martyrs

  • 1410-13, marble, 6 feet high
  • Commissioned by the stone carvers and woodworkers guild
  • They were 3rd century Christian sculptors executed for refusing to make an image of a Roman god
  • Architecture resembles a Gothic chapel, but the figures had appearance of Roman sculpture
  • Stand in a semi-circle with forward feet and drapery protruding past the floor
  • Appears to be four individual talking to each other
  • In the reliefs below there are four sculptors at work
    • Figures and objects have been undercut to cast shadows

    Donatello, Feast of Herod

  • Panel of baptismal font, from Siena Cathedral
  • Gilt bronze, 1420's
  • Figures undercut for shadows and to emphasize mass
  • Lines of brickwork and other architectural details have been incised
  • Central axis left empty so the eye is led to the left where John the Baptists'' severed head is being presented

    Andrea del Castagno, Last Supper

  • Fresco in reflectory, Convent of San't Apollonia, France, 1447
  • 32 feet long and 15 feet high
  • Gives the illusion of a raised alcove where they are eating
  • Trompe l'oeil effect is aided by a focal point on the head of the sleeping John, lines of architecture converge there

    Gentile Bellini. Procession of the Relic of the True Cross Before the Church of Saint Mark

  • Oil on canvas-1496-Venice
  • Depicts the procession of relic being carried through Saint Mark's Piazza
  • Celebrated the daily life of the city in large, lively narratives

    Giovanni Bellini. Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saint Francis, John the Baptist, Job, Dominic, Sebastian, and Louis of Toulouse

  • Oil on wood panel-1478-Church of San Giobbe, Venice
  • Dramatic perspective view up into a vaulted apse
  • Vanishing point under the angel's feet
  • Saint Sebastian is pierced by arrows

Art History-Chap.17 images part 2

17-22 Hugo ven der Goes. Portinari Altarpiece
-c. 1474-76. Tempera and oil on wood panel.
-Commissioned by Tommaso Portinari, he managed the Medici bank in Bruges
-Made in Flanders and move to Florence, Italy in the Portinari chapel in the Church of Sant'Egidio
-Taommaso, Maria Baroncelli, his wife, and their three oldest children, are pictured in the side panels. Behind them are their patron saints. In the left panel are Tommaso and his son Antonio, and behind them are the name saints, Thomas and Anthony. In the left is Maria and Margherita, behind them are the saints Mary Magdalen and Margaret. On the left side with the males is the younger son who was added later so he has no saint.
-The scene depicted in the middle panel is the nativity with everyone looking in adoration to the newborn baby Jesus. There are shepherds and angels present. Mary dominates the central panel
-It was painted in atmospheric perspective, with the colors in the background more muted

17-25 Unicorn at the Fountain
-from the Hunt of the Unicorn tapestry series, c. 1498-1500. Wool. silk, and metal thread
-The unicorns represented Christ and the woman who captured it represented Mary, it is also represented romantic love.
-On the fountain there is the letters A and E, maybe representin the first and last letters if Anee of Brittany's name or her moto, A ma vie or "by my life"
-It is a rare piece because during the French Revolution the tapestries were burnt to retrieve the precious metals.
-It has rich colors and even shows the animals reflection in the fountain water
-The unicorns horns may represent the narwhale's horn which was the antidote to poison, so the unicorn is purifying the water by dipping his horn into it.

17-28 Jean Fouquet. Etienne Chavalier and Saint Stephen and Virgin and Child
-from the left wing of the Melun Diptych
-c. 1450. Oil on wood panel, an c. 1452. oil on wood panel
-Etienne was the treasure of France under Charles VII, Chavalier is shown praying the the vigin and child. It was made to keep a promise to the kings mistress Agnes Sorel who was probably the model for the Virgin.
-Chevalier is kneelin in prayer with his name saint Stephen. He is wearing a houppelande, the costume s of that time. Saint Stephen was the first Christian Martyr, he was stoned to death and that is why he carries a stone above the Gospel book he is holding.

17-29 Konrad Witz. Miraculous Draft of Fish
-from an altarpiece from the Cathedral of saint Peter, Geneva, Switzerland. 1444, Oil on wood panel
-depicted is a scene from Saint Peter's life, the lake shown is Lake Geneva. The drapery shows the Flemish influence.
Jesus is shown on the Alps in the distance. The water surface reflects the light, boats, figures, buildings and the bottom of the lake. The clouds above the water create a sense of light and dark over the water.

17-32 Antonio del Pollaiuolo. Battle of the Nudes
-C. 1465-70, Engraving
-Shows the study of classical sculpture, anatomical research led to realism, and technical skill
-the naked men are fighting against a tapestry like background made up of foliage.
-the men seem to have been modeled by the same person in different positions
-It shows how the mens muscle under tension

17-77 Giovanni Bellini. Saint Francis in Ecstasy
-1470's Oil and tempera on wood panel
-Shows the command of an almost Flemish realism, Saint Francis stands in communion with nature in the morning sunshine.
-The saint has outspread hand showing the stigmata, or the miraculous appearance of Christ's wounds on the saints body.
-The saint moved to the wilderness in a cave to search for a communion with god.
-The artist unites the Old and New Testaments with resemblance of Christ and Moses, the tree represents the burning bush, the stream represents the spring brought forth by Moses, and grapevine and the Stigmata, Christs sacrifice.