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  • 03-17-2008 - 03-21-2008 -Spring Break (FREEDOM)
  • 03-21-2008 -Art History Outline and images
  • Still during spring break: Read Lord of the Flies for techniques/devices, 3 allusions due.

Thursday, February 21, 2008

AP Government-Module-Chap 3-Part 1-

Defining federalism:

  • Two or more governments share power over the same constitutes
  • Keeps government from holding too much power over the people
  • Anti-feds. Feared a strong national government, and focused on the protection in individual rights
    • Felt the constitution was meant to protect the wealthy
    • Thought the national gov, should not be focused on economic gain
  • Hamilton, Madison, and Jay wrote the federalist papers in response
  • Dual Federalism: took thing a step further: separated state and national government
    • Each layer would maintain its own sphere of government
    • Federal government connects layers while keeping them separate

  • Unitary government:
    • Puts all nations power with centralized government
  • Confederation:
    • Weak central government dominated forms stronger state ones
      • UN

    Separation of National and State Governments

  • Gives separate but equal powers to the state and national government
    • State has reserved powers
      • "Police Power"
        • Power to tax
        • Borrow Money
        • Define crimes
        • Punish criminals
    • National government has delegated powers
      • Enumerated: Outlined in constitution
        • Declare war
        • Regulate foreign and interstate commerce
        • Conduct foreign relations
        • Coin money
        • Maintain a military
      • Implied: Needed to carry out enumerated powers
        • Elastic clause gives the Congress the power to make laws needed to carry out their duties"
      • Inherent: Power considered a national duty of any government
        • Controlling immigration
        • Acquiring new territory
    • Supremacy Clause give national government an upper edge
    • State governments are given all power the national government doesn't have by the 10th amendment
    • Three debates:
      • Implied powers: McCulloch vs. Maryland
      • Commerce powers: Gibbons vs. Ogden; 1824
      • Civil war: Calhoun: Nullification

    Terms To Know

  • Concurrent Powers: Powers shared and exercised jointly under the Constitution by both national and state governments.
  • Confederation: A way of organizing a nation or group of nations so that the central government is loosely formed and dominated by the stronger state governments
  • Delegated Powers: The powers granted to the national government by the Constitution
  • Dual Federalism: A system of government where the national government and state governments have distinct realms of authority that do not overlap
  • Elastic Clause: Clause in the Constitution that that authorizes Congress to pass all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out the enumerated powers
  • Federalism: A way of orginizing a nation so that two or more governments share power over the same constituents
  • Enumerated Powers: Powers of the federal government that are given directly in the Constitution; for Congress, these powers are listed in Article 1, Section 8
  • Federalist Papers: Collection of 85 articles written as political theory in defense of the Constitution of the US and federalism
  • Implied Powers
  • Inherent Powers: Powers that are not expressly delegated by the Constitution, but held by any national government of a sovereign state
  • Layer Cake Federalism: Used to describe dual federalism as a system with distinct layers of a government, each with their own sphere of influence
  • McCulloch v Maryland: Supreme Court decision that establishing the supremacy of the national government over state governments
  • Reserved Powers: Powers of state government. Powers that are not given to the national government, but which are not denied to the states
  • Supremacy Clause: Article VI of the Constitution, which makes the Constitution, the laws of the national government, and treaties the superlative law of the land when the national government is acting within its constitutional limits
  • Unitary Government: A form of government in which one centralized body is the sole governingaplo unit

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