c. 500 BCE. Bronze, glaze-paste eyes, height 33 ½”. The wolf is the most famous symbol of Rome because a wolf raised Romulus and Remus after their uncle left the to die, Romulus went on to become the Founder of Rome in 753 BCE. It was made by the Etruscans in about 500 BCE, the Romans later added the statues of the babies in the late 15th century or early 16th century. It was placed on Capitoline Hill.
6-2 Porta Augusta Perugia
Italy, 2nd century BCE, the city gate of Perugia, a tunnel like passageway between two large towers. It uses the round arch, makes a semi-circular barrel vault over the passageway. It has a square frame where a semi-entablature sets off the arch. The “frieze” is made up of roundels and pilasters, column like uprights, resembling the triglyphs and metopes.
6-3 Reconstruction of an Etruscan temple
Based on descriptions by Vitruvius, he described Etruscan and Roman temples. They were built on a podium with a flight of stairs leading up to the porch. Columns and the entablature support the roof over the porch. Half of the temple space was made up of the porch and the other half was the interior space, usually split into 3 rooms that held cult statues. The statues were on the roof instead of the pediment. The columns are in the Tuscan order.
From Veii. C.500 BCE, painted terra-cotta, height 5’10”. Making large terra-cotta statues was very difficult. Originally had 3 other statues that depicted the labor of Hercules where he fights gor the rights of a deer sacred to Diana. Here Apollo is chasing Hercules across the ridge pole of the temple roof. The statue is similar to the Kouri with the detail of the body and the archaic smile, but Apollo is clothed and shows movement and more energy.
6-7 Burial Chamber, Tomb of the Reliefs, Cerveteri
3rd century BCE. Resembled a house. It has a flat ceiling supported by a square stone post, with plastered and painted wall and fully furnished, couches were made from stone and other fake stucco furnishing, like on the posts they carved pots, weapons and other realistic looking objects, in one of them in low relief was a dog, this was to provide earthly comfort for the dead.
From Cerveteri. C.520 BCE. Terra-cotta length 6’7”. Husband and wife reclining on a couch. Shown as lively and joyous people with current style hair and clothes, smiling, with almond-shaped eyes, instead of depressing view of the dead.
6-75 The Tetrarchs
c. 300 CE. Porphyry height of figures 51”. Constantinople. Shows the transition toward abstraction and symbolic representation. Has 4 figures, 2 with beards (thought to be the senior Augustine) and the others clean shaven (thought to be Caesar). The two sets are nearly identical, they are dressed in military attire with swords. It portrays the current state affairs and also plays as propaganda. Porphyry is a very hard purple stone Egypt, for imperial use, maybe difficulty adds to the abstract style
6-79 Arch of Constantine, Rome
312-15 CE (dedicated July 25, 315), monument to Constantine’s victory over Maxentius in 312 CE. The inscription on the top was taken from a monument celebrating Marcus Aurelius victory over the Germans, other pieces were taken from other monuments as well. It is located next to the Colosseum, has triple arches with barrel-vaulted passageways flanked with columns supporting a large attic story.
6-82 Constantine the Great
From the Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine, only a few marble fragments survive. It was 30 feet tall on a wooden frame, with bronze drapery. Shows the abstract qualities shown in the Tetrarchs meant to represent the imperial power and shown with no imperfection.
Newest Assignments and Dates (If assignment is online it shall be stated below)
Sunday, November 4, 2007