Newest Assignments and Dates (If assignment is online it shall be stated below)

  • 03-17-2008 - 03-21-2008 -Spring Break (FREEDOM)
  • 03-21-2008 -Art History Outline and images
  • Still during spring break: Read Lord of the Flies for techniques/devices, 3 allusions due.

Saturday, October 20, 2007

Art History -Chap 5 - Images


C. 150 BC, Melos

Marble, height 6'10". The missing arms have caused much debate. Some say that Aphrodite was once holding an apple, but others claim that the pieces found with the statue were added later.

Old Woman

2nd Century BC

Marble, height 49 1/2". Despite the woman's haggard appearance the dress seems to be made of a fine fabric. Her hair resembles a once careful arrangement. Her exposed breasts, sagging jaw line, and unfocused stare cause some people to believe that she represents aging.

Veiled and Masked Dancer

Late 2rd of 2nd Century BC

Bronze, height 8 1/8". Represents an artful professional dancer. The appeal to emotions in the sculpture signals a social change between the Classical and Hellenistic periods


Frm. Sanctuary of Apollo, Delphi. C.477

Bronze. Height 5'11''. Commemorates a victory driver in the Pythian Games of 478 or 474. Expression enhanced with glittering, colored-glass eyes and silver lashes. Features suggest a young youthful appearance

Kritian Boy

Frm. Acropolis, Athens. C. 480 BC

Marble, height 46". Early free-standing marble figures to exhibit more life-like qualities. Body weight rests on left leg. The slight turn of the head invites the spectator to follow his gaze. Transition between the Archaic kouroi and the ideal figures.

Model of the Acropolis, Athens

C.400 BC

Marble temple dedicated to Athena. Included a bronze stature of Athena the Defender. The statue depicted Athena wielding a spear. Included a winged stoa dedicated to Artemis and the Parthenon for Athena.

Kalikrates and Ilktinos: Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens

C. 447-438 BC

Perfectly proportion in the ratio of 4:9 in breath to length and in the relationship of column diameter. Simple post-and-lintel structure.

Mnesikles. Erechtheion, Acropolis, Athens.

C.430w-405 BC

Asymmetrical plan and several levels reflect the multiple functions in housing many different shrines. The mythical contest between Poseidon and Athena was said to have taken place here (they were fighting over their favorite city (Athens))

Porch of the Maidens (Caryatid Porch), Erechtheion

Acropolis, Athens. 421-405 BC

The six caryatids with simple Doric capitals support an Ionic entablature made of bands of carved molding. The fall of the drapery illustrates the columnar look. This balanced with the bent knee shoe strength, but also effortless grace.

Polykleitos. Spear Bearer (Doryphoros)

Roman copy of original bronze of C.450-440 BC.

Marble. Height 6'6". The original didn't survive, but it was spoken of in many literary works. Later copied by Romans. The weight of the upper body is focused on the straight leg. The tilt in the hipline is more pronounced to accommodate the raising foot

Nike (Victory) Adjusting her Sandal

Temple of Athena, Acropolis, Athena C.5 BC

Marble, height 42". Nike is placed in a bit of an awkward position, leaning forward, her dress slipping off her shoulder. Her large wings balance her unstable pose. The light fabric differs from the heavy fabric covering the Parthenon goddesses. The light fabric seeming to cling to her skin like wet silk. A most discreetly erotic image

Discus Thrower -Myron

Classical period, marble Roman copy of Greek Bronze original, C. 450 BC

Height: 5'11", Demonstrates s-curve.


Lefkand, Euboea, 10th century BC

Terra-cotta, 14 1/8", Proto-geometric: Use of geometric forms in painted decorations and the reduction of human and animal body to simple geometric solids. Unusual because of size. Bold, abstract designs w/ slip.

Funerary Vases

Diplon cemertry, Athens, C. 750 BC

Terra-cotta, height 42 5/8". Triangular torsos and head. Use for cremation. Male and female figures stand by the body, mostly mourners.

Man and Centaur

Geometric period, Olympia. C. 750

Bronze. Height 4 5/16". Simple geometric shapes, negative spaces (open). Found in sanctuaries, possible votive figures

Pitcher (Olpe)

Archaic period, Corinth, C. 600 BC

Ceramic with black-figure decoration. Height 11 1/2". Rosettes (stylized flower figures). Lions and serpent and the composite creatures against a background of very pale buff, the natural color of the Corinthian clay

Temple of Hera the 1st

Archaic period, Paestum, Italy. C. 550 BC

Earliest standing temple in Paestum. Utilizes peristyle (row of columns that surround the cella on all four sides), cornice (the slightly projecting top most element of the entablature, and the pediment

Corner View of the temple of Hera

Archaic period, Paestum, Italy.

Doric order. Columns fluted shafts resting with out bases on the stylobate. Entasis: Refinement, gives sense of energy and upward lift. Adyton: Small room at the end of the cella proper

Gorgon Medusa

Archaic period,

Limestone, height: 9'2". Protective, On the left is Pegasus, on the right is Chrysoar. Sculpture in the round

Recon. Of the Treasury of the Siphnians

Archaic period, Sanctuary of Apoloa at Delphi, C. 530-525 BC

Marble, pronaos with two caryatids columns carved in the form of the draped women, reinforced by square pillars, (antae). Temple plan: in antis (between pillars)

Recon. Drawing of the eat pediment of the temple of Aphaia

Archaic period, 480 BC

Length: 6". Triangular pediment. Warriors have fallen, crouched and rising towards Athena under the peak of the roof

Dying Warrior

Archaic period, temple of Athaia, Aegina, C. 480 BC

Marble, tragic but noble figure struggling to rise while dying. Originally painted and fitted with authentic bronze accessories, captures the soldiers moment of pain and agony and vulnerability, the body conveys the softness of human flesh, contrasted with the hard metallic geometry of the armor and helmet

New York Kouros

Archaic peios, Attica, C, 580 BC

Marble, height: 6'4". Shows canon of proportions similar to Egyptian art, contrapposto. Shows notable athletic ability, eyes are wide and large, and the mouth forms the closed-lip smile know as the Archaic smile.

5-20 Peplos Kore, Acropolis, Athens , c.530 BCE, Marble. The statue is named for the garment peplos which is a draped rectangle of cloth, usually wool, folded on top and pinned at the shoulders and belted at the waist. Motionless and a vertical pose, but has a more rounded feminine figure. The hair is stylized and has the archaic smile. The statue once wore a metal crown and earrings. The kore also has traces of encaustic painting with was a mixture of pigment and wax that left a shinny finish. It was found in the debris from the Acropolis of Athens with other votive figures.

5-24 Ergotimos (potter) and Kleitias (painter) François Vase c. 570 B.C.E. Black figure decoration on a volute krater. Ceramic, 26". Has scroll shaped handles, they were used for mixing wine and water. It is one of the earliest known vases to be signed by both the potter and the painter. The Vase has about 200 human and animal figures, 3 bands down is the main scene, the marriage of Peleus and Thetis who had Achilles.

5-22 Calf bearer (moschophoros) from Acropolis in Athens , c. 560 BCE, Marble 5'5" tall. IT was found in the Acropolis rubble in the sanctuary of Athena. He is holding the calf around his head by the feet. It might represent a priest carrying a calf for a sacrifice to a God. Has the Archaic smile, wide open eyes and tufted hairdo. He appears to be wearing a gauze-thin robe and the usual beard for that time period.

5-26 Exekais. The suicide of Ajax , c.540 BCE. Black-figure decoration on an amphora vase. Ceramic. 27" Exekais was both the potter and the painter, he usually focused on Greek history. The scene is from the Trojan war. Ajax was second to Achilles, when his armor was given to Odysseus he killed himself. Other painters would show him already dead but Exekais showed him preparing for suicide. He sets his armor aside and prepares a mound to fall upon.

5-27 "A.D" Painter. Women at fountain House 520-510 BCE. Black-figure decoration on a hydras(or water jug) 20 7/8''. The artist signed A.D. shows everyday life in ancient Greece and the public buildings. The women are in a fountain house which is open and has Doric columns. The pots the women are filling are the same shape as the one its painted on. The women are white as in other cultures and that is common in Greek painting.

5-32 Athena, Herakles, and Atlas. Metope relief form the frieze of the temple of Zeus , Olympia . c.460 BCE. Marble 5'3" tall. In the scene Herakles is holding up the sky and Atlas is holding out an apple. Atlas can't see that Athena is behind Herakles. It is in high relief and more realistic. It is from myth where Herakles has to do almost impossible tasks, one of them is to get an apple from an orchard that only gods can go in. Atlas tells Herakles that he will get the apple if he holds up the sky.

5-60 Praxiteces or his followers, Hermes and the infant Dionysus, maybe a Hellenistic or Roman copy of the 4th century B.C.E. original, marble with traces or red paint on lips and Hair. Seven feet, nine inches tall. This piece shows the difference between Praxiteles style and the late 5th century. Has a small head and a youthful body, the body is off balance and creates a s-curve with the hips. Its in high ulitu and detail, especially on hair and drapery.

5-67 Alexander the Great Confronts Darius III at the battle of Issos, Pompeii , Roman mosaic copy of the Greek one. 310 BCE maybe by Philoxeros or Helen of Egypt. The Romans copied the Greek paintings, these copies show 5th century BC Greek paintings. These are very close copies, they made these solid figures through modeling they would make the solid figures through modeling the fragment in a way where the mimic the play of light on a 3-D surface. The mosaic depicts a dramatic event, where Alexander challenges the Persian leader.

5-74 Gallic Cheiftain killing his wife and himself, Roman copy after the original bronze of 220 BCE. Marble, 6'11" tall. In the Pergamene style from Asia minor , has a new sculpting style, Hellenistic period, were mounted on a pedestal. Shown as barbarian with the messy hair and twisted body position. Support his wife as she is dying, they were made to arouse a specific emotional response in the viewer, called expressionism.

5-77 Reconstructed west front of the alter from Pergamon. C. 166-156 BCE, marble. Made a decorative frieze at the base. Has an Ionic colonnade and a large staircase (68 feet wide and 30 feet deep) frieze depicts battle between Gods and Giants, used as metaphor of Pergamons victory over Gauls. The frieze comes out of wall onto steps and invades the viewer's space. A difference b/w the Classical period is the balance of opposites and the 3-D space on a diagonal line.

5-79 Hagesandros, Polydoros and Athandiros of Rhodes . Lacöon and his sons. Original 1st century CE of Roman copy, Marble 8' tall. Statue of the Trojan War. The priest told the Trojans not to bring the wooden horse inside the walls; the gods sided with the Greeks and sent serpents from the sea so kill Lacöon and his sons. The pose shows the connection b/w Rhodian and Pergamene sculptures. This statue was meant to be seen from the front so it appears to be in high relief other than in the round.

5-80 Nike (victory of Samothrace) Sanctuary of the Great Gods, Samothrace c. 190 BCE, Marble 8' tall. Has a large open movement of the figure, has a contrast of light and dark, in the deeply sculpted forms. The feathers, fabric and skin show the finer Hellenistic art. It's the Greek goddess who comes in after a fight and decides who the winner is.

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